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THE LIBRARY 

of 
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 



THE 

CHINA MISSION 

YEAR BOOK 

1919 

(TENTH ANNUAL ISSUE) 

Issued under arrangement between the Chrfstian Literature 

Society for China and the China Continuation Committee 

under the direction of the following Editorial Committee 

appointed by the China Continuation Committee 

Rev. R. C. Beebe, M.D. Rev. Frank Rawlinson, D.D. 

Rev. Ernest Box Rt. Rev. L. H. Roots. D.D. 

Rev. C. Y. Cheng, D.D. Rev. Arthur H. Smith, D.D. 

E. J. Dingle, Esq. Rev. C. J. F. Symons, M.A. 

Rev. F. D. Gamewell, LL.D. Rev. Joshua Vale 

Rev. D. MacGillivray, D.D. Rev. H. K. Wright, M.A. 
J. B. Powell, Esq. 



EDITORS 

Rev. E. C. Lobenstine 
Rev. A. L. Warnshuis 

Secretaries, China Continuation Committee 



SHANGHAI 

KWANG HSUEH PUBLISHING HOUSE 
J920 



C58 



THE YEAR BOOK MAY BE OBTAINED 

In Europe from 

Rev. W. Nelson Bitton, J6 New Bridge St., London, Eng. 

In America from 

Mr. F. P. Turner, 25 Madfson Ave., New York City 



PREFACE 

THE year 1919 will remain a memorable one in Chinese history. 
The Shantung award at the peace table in Paris profoundly 
stirred the student and business classes in all parts of China, and 
set in motion forces the full significance of which it is impossible as 
yet to estimate. The student movement is the most hopeful sign of 
an awakened public spirit that has manifested itself in China in many 
years. It bids fair to become a force strong enough to bring about 
some urgently needed reforms. If wisely directed it may well usher 
in a new day in China. In fact to many it seems that the new day 
has already begun. The support given the students by the business 
classes throughout China not only encouraged them to persevere in 
their efforts but also to reveal how widespread is the dissatisfaction 
with the present government and with its foreign policy. 

The growing interest in popular education is another illustration 
that a new spirit is abroad. The proposals that from time to time 
emanate from prominent (government educational) leaders are very 
far-reaching and aim at nothing less than the making of "mandarin" 
a national language that can be universally understood throughout 
the country and that will eventually make unnecessary the study 
of the present written language by students who do not pursue 
their studies beyond the first six or eight years. The leaders in 
this movement see clearly that without such radical changes as are 
involved in the above proposals the great masses of the people can 
never, under existing economic conditions, secure even those rudi 
ments of education which are essential if China is to take her place 
among the democracies of the world. 

The significance of these movements for Christian work is 
generally recognized. They have already aroused new asoi rations in 
the hearts of many Christians. The students in Christian schools 
joined with those of government schools in the patriotic uprisings of 
the past year. The Christians have felt a new sense of responsibility 
for leadership resting upon them in this hour of their country s need. 
Christian patriotic societies have been formed in different parts of the 
country and more recently a "China-for-Christ Movement" has 
been started. It is an attempt to provide a means by which Chris 
tians in all parts of China may unite in efforts to bring to their 
country those moral and religious blessings which lie at the founda 
tion of any strong national life and which they feel that Christianity 
alone can supply. 

During the past year many of the missionary societies have found 
their work seriously handicapped by the absence from the field of 
an unusually large number of workers and by serious loss in income 
due to exchange. They see little prospect of any considerable 
reinforcements _in the immediate future and are bending every effort 
to maintain existing work. Others, more especially the American 
and Canadian societies, have been challenged by the Interchurch 
World Movement of North America and by similar movements in 
China to state their needs in staff and money if they are to take the 
largest possible advantage of the opportunities before them. The 



IV PREFACE 

amount of the combined "askings" of all the societies that are 
planning to extend their work is not yet known, but enough is 
known to make it very clear that the next five to ten years are to be 
supremely critical years for the Church in China, as well as years of 
unbounded opportunity. 

There never was a time when wisdom was more needed than 
now in order that these enlarged plans may make for the upbuilding 
of a strong indigenous Chinese Church, deeply spiritual and fired by 
a passion to win China for Christ. 

The beginnings of these movements are described in this issue 
of the CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. The different articles when taken 
together make an inspiring picture. They reveal again the great 
virility and strength of the Chinese people and the hold that 
Christianity has already gained upon them. They show the con 
stant, and often bold advance of the Christian forces. 

The book follows the same general outline as in recent years. 
The general statistics of the missions have, however, been omitted 
in view of the publication in the autumn by the China Continuation 
Committee of the Missionary Survey of China, which it has been 
conducting during the last few years. 

We regret the delay that has occurred in the date of this year s 
issue. The aim is to have the book appear in January of each 
year. The delay has been due primarily to the difficulty of finding 
the time amid the press of other duties for the necessary editorial 
work. One or other of the editors was absent from China during 
the whole of the year and this not only meant a change of editors 
shortly before the book went to press, but the necessity of one man 
trying to carry two men s work in connection with the China Con 
tinuation Committee and the added duties laid upon him by the 
launching of the China-for-Christ Movement. Several unexpected 
delays were caused" while the book was in the press, the most serious 
of which was _with the failure of the writer who had promised to 
send the opening article. It was finally found necessary to secure 
another writer. 

The China Continuation Committee is responsible for the CHINA 
MISSION YEAR BOOK onJy in that it appoints the Editorial Committee 
and the Editors. When articles in the book are the expression of 
the policies or the views of the China Continuation Committee this 
fact is made clear ; in other cases the writer of the paper is responsible 
for the opinions expressed. 

The Editors desire to thank most heartily those who have so 
kindly contributed the articles which make up the book, and 
especially Professor C. F. Remer, who upon a few days notice under 
took to write the opening chapter. Special thanks are also due to 
Mr. C. L. Boynton who has again, as in former years, kindly sen 
the book through the press. 

E. C. L. 

Shanghai, March 10, 1920. 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE iii-iv 

CONTENTS v-viii 

CONTRIBUTORS ix-xii 

PART I. THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

Chapter PAGE 

I. CHINA SINCE THE WORLD WAR C. F. Renaer 1 

II. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 

Norman R. Shaw 17 

III. THE PROBLEM OP ESTABLISHING A DEMOCRACY IN CHINA 

K. S. Liu 37 

IV. THE STUDENT MOVEMENT MONLINCHIANG 45 

PART II. THE CHURCHES AND THE MISSIONS 

V. THE OUTLOOK C. G. Sparham 52 

VI. CHANGES OF EMPHASIS IN MISSIONARY WORK 

J. L. Stuart 65 

VII. COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN WORK Edward Jamas 74 

PART III. EVANGELISM 

VIII. RECENT ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE 

RELIGIONS Harrison K. Wright 82 

IX. MISSIONARY MOVEMENTS IN THE CHINESE CHURCH 

Mary Culler White 95 
X. How CHRISTIANITY WAS INTRODUCED TO A COMMUNITY 

IN NORTHWEST CHINA WATTS 0. PYE 109 

XI. COLPORTEURS AND THEIR WORK G. H. Bondfield 117 



Vi CONTENTS 

Chapter PAGE 

PART IV. GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

XII. TEACHER TRAINING IN CHINA H. T. Silcock 122 

XIII. PROGRESSIVE PLANS AND WORK IN RELIGIOUS EDUCA 

TION IN CHINA J. B. Webster 129 

XIV. THE EVANGELIZATION OF STUDENTS IN CHINA 

Arthur Rugh 140 

XV. THE ASSOCIATION OP CHRISTIAN COLLEGES AND UNI 
VERSITIES IN CHINA The Editor 147 

XVI. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURE EDUCATION 

UNDER MISSIONARY AUSPICES John H. Reisner 158 

XVII. THE HUCHOW WOMAN S SCHOOL Helen T. Leach 173 

XVIII. PROMOTION OF PHONETIC WRITING IN CHINA 

Miss S. J. Garland 176 

PART V. MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

XIX. THE CHINA MEDICAL BOARD 1918-1919 ..., 

Roger S. Greene 184 

XX. MORAL WELFARE WORK IN CHINA 

Frank Rawlinson 190 

XXI. THE BOY SCOUTS IN CHINA G. S. Foster Kemp 196 

XXII. SOME EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL SERVICE WORK 

Arthur J. Allen 205 

XXIII. THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-OPIUM ASSOCIATION 

T. L. Lin 218 

PART VI. LITERATURE IN CHINA 

XXIV. THE TREND OF MODERN CHINESE LITERATURE 

J. Darroch 225 

XXV. PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE OF THE PROTESTANT 
CHRISTIAN CHURCHES, OCT., 1918, TO SEPT., 1919 ... 

G. A. Clayton 235 



CONTENTS VI 1 

Chapter PAGE 

XXVI. CHINA IN CONTEMPORANEOUS LITERATURE 

Frank Kawlinson 247 

PART VII. MISCELLANEOUS 

XXVII. SPIRIT AND CHARACTER OP APPROACH TO CHINESE 

RELIGIONS H. P. Beach 275 

XXVIII. CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG THE TROOPS OP THE 
SIXTEENTH MIXED BRIGADE AT CHANGTEH, HU 
NAN , G. G. Warren 281 

XXIX. AMONG THE MOSLEMS F.H.Rhodes 287 

XXX. CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN MANY LANDS MISSION 

WORK IN CHINA F. J. Hopkins 290 

XXXI. THE ASSOCIATED MISSION TREASURERS IN CHINA 

A. E. Claxton, L. M. Bocker 296 

XXXII. THE UNIVERSITY OP NANKING DEPARTMENT OP 

MISSIONARY TRAINING-REPORT 1918-1919 

C. S. Keen 304 
XXXIII. THE WORK AND PLANS OP THE PEKING CHRISTIAN 

STUDENT WORK UNION 1918-1919 Reprinted 308 

PART VIII. SURVEY 

XXXIV. THE PROGRESS OP THE GENERAL MISSIONARY 

SURVEY Milton T. Stauffer 312 

PART IX. OBITUARIES C. L. Boynton 331 

Timothy Richard Evan Morgan 331 

Arnold Foster Arthur Bonsey 332 

J. Campbell Gibson G. H. Bondfiold 334 

J. W. Bashford Paul Hutchinson 336 

PART X. APPENDICES 

A. CHINA IN THE THOUGHT OP THE WORLD AS SEEN IN 

SOME RECENT BOOKS AND ARTICLES 

Frank Rawlinson 345 



Vlll CONTENTS 

Chapter PAGE 

B. REORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNING BODY OP THE 

NORTHERN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION IN SHANTUNG 
PROVINCE 365 

C. PLAN OF UNION AND DOCTRINAL BASIS FOR THE UNITED 

CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 368 

D. PROVISION AL CHARTER OF FUKIEN CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 372 

E. CONSTITUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-OPIUM AS 

SOCIATION, PEKING 374 

F. NORTH CHINA UNION LANGUAGE SCHOOL, PEKING, CHINA 377 

G. THE UNIFICATION OF THE LANGUAGE OF CHINA, ACTIONS 

OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND OF THE CHINESE 
NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE 382 

H. STATISTICS ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA, 1919... 386 
INDEX ... 389 



CONTRIBUTORS 

(The figures in parentheses indicate the dates of first arrival in 
China.) 

Arthur J. Allen, Esq. (1918) SOME EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL SERVICE 
WORK. 

Secretary, Young Men s Christian Association, Peking. 

Rev. Harlan P. Beach, D.D. SPIRIT AND CHARACTER OP APPROACH TO 
CHINESE RELIGIONS. 

Professor, School of Missions, Yale University School of Re 
ligion, Now Haven, Connecticut. 

L. M. Bocfcer, Esq. (1919) THE ASSOCIATED MISSION TREASURERS IN 
CHINA. (Joint Author) 

Treasurer of the American Presbyterian Mission, North, Shanghai. 

Rev. G. H. Bondfield, D.D. (1883) COLPORTEURS AND THEIR WORK. 
Agent, British and Foreign Bible Society, Shanghai. 

Rev. Charles L. Boynton. (1909) OBITUARIES. 

Statistical Secretary, China Continuation Committee, Shanghai. 

Monlin Chiang, Esq., Ph.D. THE STUDENT MOVEMENT. 
Kiangsu Educational Association, Shanghai. 

Rev. A. E. Claxton. (1885) TIFE ASSOCIATED MISSION TREASURERS IN 
CHINA. (Joint Author) 

Treasurer of the London Missionary Society, Shanghai. 

Rev. George A. Clayton. (1895) PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE OF THE 
PROTESTANT CHRISTIAN CHURCHES, OCTOBER, 1918, TO SEPTEMBER, 
1919. 

Missionary of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society ; 
Honorary Secretary, Religious Tract Society of North and 
Central China, Hankow. 

Rev. J. Darroch, Litt.D. (1887) THE TREND OF MODERN CHINESE 
LITERATURE. 

Secretary for China, the Religious Tract Society (London); 
Honorary Secretary, The China Christian Literature Coun 
cil, Shanghai. 



X CONTRIBUTORS 

Miss S. J. Garland. (1891) PROMOTION OF PHONETIC WRITING IN 
CHINA. 

Missionary of the China Inland Mission, Tsinchow, Kansu ; 
Honorary Secretary, Special Committee on Promotion of 
Phonetic Writing, China Continuation Committee, Shanghai. 

Roger S. Greene, Esq. THE CHINA MEDICAL BOARD, 1918-1919. 

Resident Director in China, China Medical Board of the Rocke 
feller Foundation, Peking. 

F. J. Hopkins, Esq. (1906) CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN MANY LANDS 

MISSION WORK IN CHINA. 

Missionary of the Christian Missions in Many Lands, Nan- 
changhsien, Kiangsi. 

Rev. Edward James. (1896) COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN* WORK. 
Missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Nanking. 

Rev. C. S. Keen, M.A. (1902) THE UNIVERSITY OF NANKING DEPART 
MENT OF MISSIONARY TRAINING REPORT 1918-19. 

Missionary of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, 
Dean of the Nanking Language School, Nanking. 

G. S. Foster Kemp, Esq., A.C.P. (1904) THE BOY SCOUTS IN CHINA. 

Headmaster, Public School for Chine.se ; Chairman of Council, 
Boy Scouts. Association of China, Shanghai. 

Miss Helen T. Leach. (1913) THE HUCHOW WOMAN S SCHOOL. 

Missionary of the American Baptist Foreign Missionary Scoiety, 
Huchow, Chekiang. 

T. L. Liii, Esq. THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-OPIUM ASSOCIATION. 

Secretary, Shanghai Branch of the International Anti-Opium 
Association. 

K. S. Liu, Esq., Ph.D. THE PROBLEM OF ESTABLISHING A DEMOCRACY 
IN CHINA. 

Professor, University of Nanking. 

Rev. Watts O. Pye, M.A. (1907) How CHRISTIANITY WAS INTRODUCED 
TO A COMMUNITY IN NORTHWEST CHINA. 

Missionary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, Fenchow, Shansi. 

Rev. Frank Rawlinson, D.D. (1902) MOR.VL WELFARE WORK IN 
CHINA, CHINA IN CONTEMPORANEOUS LITERATURE. 



CONTRIBUTORS XI 

Missionary of the Southern Baptist Convention, Shanghai. 
Editor, Chinese Recorder. 

John H. Reisner, Esq. (1914) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURAL 
EDUCATION UNDER MISSIONARY AUSPICES. 

Missionary of the American Presbyterian Mission, North ; Pro 
fessor m the Agricultural School of University of Nanking, 
Nanking. 

Charles F. Remer, Esq., M.A. (1913) 

Missionary of the American Church Mission ; Professor in St. 
John s University, Shanghai. 

Rev. F. H. Rhodes. (1890 AMONG THE MOSLEMS. 

Missionary of the China Inland .Mission, Chefoo. 

Arthur Rugh, Esq. (1903) THE EVANGELIZATION OP STUDENTS IN CHINA. 

Student Secretary, National Committee, Young Men s Christian 
Associations of China, Shanghai. 

Norman R. M. Shaw, Esq. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 
1918. 

Statistical Department, Inspectorate General, China Maritime 
Customs, Shanghai. 

H. T. Silcocfc, Esq., M.A. (1908) TEACHER TRAINING IN CHINA. 

Missionary of the Friend s Foreign Mission Association, Chengtu, 
Szechwan. 

Rev. C. G. Spar ham. (1S84) THE OUTLOOK. 

Secretary, Advisory Council, London Missionary Society, Shang 
hai. 

Rev. Milton T. Stauffer. (191(i) PROGRESS OF THE GENERAL MISSION 
ARY SURVEY. 

Secretary of the Special Committee on Survey and Occupation, 
China Continuation Committee, Shanghai. 

Rev. J. L. Stuart, D.D. (1904) CHANGES OP EMPHASIS IN MISSIONARY 
WORK. 

Missionary of the American Presbyterian Mission, South ; 
President, Peking University, Poking. 

Rev. G. G. Warren. (1886) CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG THE TROOPS OP 
THE SIXTEENTH MIXED BRIGADE AT CHANGTEH, HUNAN. 

Chairman of the Wesloyan Methodist Missionary .Society, 
Changsha, Hunan. 



Xll CONTRIBUTORS 

Rev. James B. Webster, Ph.D. (1908). PROGRESSIVE PLANS AND 
WORK IN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN CHINA. 

Missionary of the Southern Baptist Convention ; Professor, 
Shanghai Baptist College, Shanghai. 

Miss Mary Culler White. (1901) MISSIONARY MOVEMENTS IN THE 
CHINESE CHURCH. 

Missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, .South, Sung- 
kiangfu, Kiangsu. 

Rev. Harrison K. Wright, M.A. (1902) RECENT ACTIVITIES AND 
DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE RELIGIONS. 

Missionary of the American Presbyterian Mission, North; 
assigned to translation work with the Christian Literature 
Society, Shanghai. 



PART I 

THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 
CHAPTER I 

CHINA SINGE THE WORLD WAR 
C. F. Remer 

The Armistice The armistice of November, 1918, which 

brought the World War to an end, brought 
with it a new situation in the Far East. To understand the 
internal affairs of China and her relations with other 
countries it is necessary to remember this fact. During the 
war it had been possible for the Western nations to look 
upon events in China as comparatively unimportant or else 
as temporary, having significance for the period of the war 
only. During the war it had been possible for the Chinese, 
themselves, to regard both internal affairs and foreign 
relations as subject to immediate and drastic modification, 
when the war should come to a close. The period "after 
the war" had been seen in that rosy glow which suffering 
humanity delights to cast around the events of the future. 
Enough time has now elapsed since the war to enable some 
conclusions to be drawn as to its present and future con 
sequences for China. 

For convenience the events since the signing of the 
armistice are set forth under two general headings, interna 
tional relations and internal affairs, but it must be remem 
bered that the impetus, which has given both the internal 
and external problems of China their present form and 
direction, was the sudden termination of the war in Europe. 
When China is criticized, as she has been, 
f r expecting too much from the war, it 
must be remembered that she was encouraged 
in her hopes by the leaders of the Allied nations. The 
address of President Wilson, delivered on September 28, 
1918, at the opening of the Fourth Liberty Loan campaign, 



2 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

was translated into Chinese and widely distributed. It fell 
into the hands of many Chinese during the days im 
mediately before or after the armistice. In this speech 
President Wilson said that no outcome of the war could be 
accepted which did not squarely meet and settle " 
certain issues. In setting forth these issues he asked the 
following questions : 

Shall the military power of any nation or group of 
nations be suffered to determine the future of peoples over 
whom they have no right to rule except the right of force ? 

" Shall the strong nations be free to wrong weak nations 
and make them subject to their purpose and interest? 

"Shall peoples be ruled and dominated, even in their 
own internal affairs, by arbitrary and irresponsible force 
or by their own will and choiae? 

"Shall there be a common standard of right and 
privilege for all peoples and nations or shall the strong do 
as they will and the weak suffer without redress? 

To such questions the Chinese were ready to answer. 
They were ready to agree emphatically with President 
Wilson. They looked upon the asking of such questions as 
a promise for the future. It is easy to point out that they 
have not answered these questions satisfactorily in the field 
of their own political affairs, and that they did not 
appreciate the sacrifice of blood and gold that lay behind 
President Wilson s right to speak as he did. The Chinese 
have a habit, which they share with the rest of the world, 
of fixing their minds upon the generalization that promises 
them what they want. Such a generalization, "Might 
does not make right," was repeated again and again in the 
Chinese newspapers at the end of the war. Here also it is 
easy to say that the Chinese must appreciate that the power 
of right is that it attracts men to fight for it, that right is 
not some principle that destroys its enemies by magic power 
and offers its friends an easy life. Such criticisms are 
easily made, but who will say that there was not, beneath 
the shallow thinking that gets itself expressed, a sincere 
longing among the Chinese for justice and a sincere belief 
that justice would be done at the end of the war? 



CHINA SINCE THE WORLD WAR 6 

There was in the minds of some Chinese 
in November, 1918, a doubt as to whether 
Representation China would be represented at the Peace 
Conference. This doubt is the background 
of ail article by Liang Chi-chao which was reprinted in the 
newspapers of the country at this time. This article set 
forth the reasons for Chinese representation and pointed out 
the fact that, if China were not directly represented, she 
would be indirectly represented with possible future com 
plications. "The guilty appear in the court/ said Liang. 
"China may not have done much for the Allies but she has 
done something. Even if she had done nothing she would 
have the right to appear where the problem of China was 
being settled. " 

H As soon as the armistice was signed 

Representatives China appointed her delegates. On Novem 
ber 14, 1918, the cabinet approved the sugges 
tion of the President that Lu Cheng-hsiang, the Foreign 
Minister, be made China s chief delegate. V. K. Wellington 
Koo, Hawkling L. Yen, Hu Wei-te, S. K. Alfred Sze, and 
C. T. Wang were appointed at that time or later to serve 
with him. The final draft of the treaty of peace bore the 
names of Lu and Wang as China s representatives. Some 
of these men have earned the gratitude of the Chinese by 
their vigorous and fearless espousal of China s cause in 
Paris during a time when they could not be sure of 
continued support and when, it is reported, attempts were 
being made to intimidate them. C. T. Wang, who has been 
prominent in the Young Men s Christian Associations in 
China is looked upon by the Chinese as the man responsible 
for China s final refusal to sign the treaty with Germany 
and when he returned to China early in 1920 he was given 
an enthusiastic welcome. 

The discussion within China as to what 

Proposals sne should ask for at the peace conference 

shows that China s attitude toward the 
conference was that it was to be a world court. This 
discussion seldom turned upon what* was to be asked from 
Germany and more frequently was concerned with what 



4 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

China intended to ask of the whole world. One list of 
China s wants included the following: 

1. The abolition of exterritoriality. 

2. The return of all concessions and foreign 
"settlements." 

3. Favorable modification of the most-favored- 
nation clause. 

4. The cancellation of the Boxer indemnity. 

This list is more moderate than most. China expected 
the peace conference to do for her what no peace conference 
could do, that is, set her on her feet at once; she got less 
from the peace conference than any world conference could 
give her and still hope to have laid the foundations for 
permanent peace. 

The Tr ^ e hi s ^ or > 7 f China s part in the peace 

of Peace conference has still to be written. The world 

has not been told what happened. The 
result was a more complete failure than even pessimistic 
Chinese had feared. It is a strange coincidence that the 
telegram announcing the " Shantung " clauses of the treaty 
reached China on the seventh of May, a day that the 
Chinese have looked upon, since 1915, as a day of shame 
and humiliation. The storm of indignation that arose in 
China over these clauses has found its most vigorous 
expression in a boycott of Japanese goods that has continued 
through the year and in the "student movement" which 
is dealt with elsewhere in the YEAR BOOK. To March, 
1920, the boycott has had no serious diplomatic consequences, 
though it was mentioned by the Japanese Foreign Minister 
in a speech before the Diet on January 21, 1920, as a matter 
that was being given the attention of the Japanese Foreign 
Office. 

Section eight of the treaty of peace with Germany is 
given below. It is taken from the journal of the American 
Association for International Conciliation for September, 
1919. 

"Article 156. Germany renounces, in favor of Japan, 
all her rights, titles and privileges particularly those 



CHINA SINCE THE WORLD WAR 

concerning the territory of Kiaochovv, railways, mines and 
submarine cables which she acquired in virtue of the 
treaty concluded by her with China on March 8, 1898, and 
of all other arrangements relative to the province of 
Shantung. 

"All German rights in the Tsiugtao-Tsinanfu Railway, 
including its branch lines together with its subsidiary 
property of all kinds, stations, shops, fixed and rolling 
stock, mines, plant and material for the exploitation of the 
mines, are and remain acquired by Japan, together with all 
rights and privileges attaching thereto. 

"The German State submarine cables from Tsingtao 
to Shanghai and from Tsingtao to Chefoo, with all the 
rights, privileges and properties attaching thereto, are 
similarly acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges" 
and encumbrances. 

"Article 157. The movable and immovable property 
owned by the German State in the territory of Kiaochow, 
as well as the rights which Germany might claim in 
consequence of the works or improvements made or of the 
expenses incurred by her, directly or indirectly, in connec 
tion with this territory, are and remain acquired by Japan, 
free and clear of all charges and encumbrances. 

"Article 158. Germany shall hand over to Japan 
within three months from the coming into force of the 
present treaty the archives, registers, plans, title-deeds 
and documents of every kind, wherever they may be, 
relating to the administration, whether civil, military, 
h nancial, judicial or other, of the territory of Kiaochow. 

Within the same period Germany shall give particu 
lars to Japan of all treaties, arrangements or agreements 
relating to the rights, title or privileges referred to in the 
two preceding Articles." 

R f The reasons for the failure of the 

China s 3 Failure Chinese at the peace conference have been 
much discussed. There is no unanimity of 
opinion but it seems worth while to try to set them down in 
order. 



6 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

1. The secret pledges given to Japan by England, 
France, Italy, and Russia during the l;ist days of February 
and the first few days of March, 1917, that each of these 
nations would support Japan s claims in regard to the 
disposal of Germany s rights in Shantung. 

2. The conviction of President Wilson, expressed in 
his testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations, that Japan would withdraw from the conference if 
the matter of Shantung were not settled to her satisfaction. 

3. The fact that China did not have a clear record. 
Her government had given support to Japan s claims in 
May, 1915, and, it is said, on the occasion of the War 
Participation Loan contract in September, 1918. 

4. The failure of the Chinese to make peace within 
their own country and so to give united support to China s 
delegates. 

5. The failure of the peace conference to come to a 
satisfactory expression of the principle of the rights of 
small and weak nations. 

China refused to sign the treaty of 
Member f peace with Germany and brought the state 
the League f war between herself and Germany to an 
end by a notice issued on September 15, 1919, 
in which the date of the cessation of hostilities was given as 
June 28. China was among the -signatories of the peace 
treaty with Austria which was signed in Paris on September 
10 and by doing so is understood to have become a member of 
the League of Nations. 

There were further developments in the 
S America mat . te r of Germany s rights in Shantung 
and Japan during the summer and early autumn of 

1919. President Wilson has stated publicly 
that Japan has given an oral pledge to return Kiaochow to 
China. Among the reservations to the peace treaty that 
were agreed upon by the United States Senate before the 
final vote in which the Senate refused to ratify the treaty 
was one in which the United States reserved to itself " full 
liberty of action with respect to any controversy that may 



CHINA SINCE THE WORLD WAR 7 

arise " out of the matter. On August 12, the Japanese 
Minister to China called at the Foreign Office in Peking and 
intimated that Japan was ready to return Kiaochow to 
China within two years but that in return for this Japan 
would expect compensation elsewhere. 

During November, 1919, it was intimated 

that Chil]a Ught t0 lay the matter f 
Negotiations Shantung be-fore the League of Nations or 

take the matter up with Japan. The early 
weeks of 1920 brought a persistent rumor that the matter of 
direct negotiations with Japan were under consideration. 
There has been disapproval of this method of getting 
forward with the matter and at the present time (March, 
1920) the subject is still being debated. The alternative 
to some sort of negotiations with Japan seems to be to lay 
the matter before the League of Nations, but this China 
naturally hesitates to do until America shall have become an 
active member of the League, because America is the one 
country that has in any public way disavowed the award of 
the German rights in Shantung to Japan. 
Siberia Siberia has been a problem of varying 

magnitude during the year, but in general 
China has looked with a neutral eye upon the struggles of 
the different factions within the country. The present 
problem that she faces with the Bolshevik party successful 
throughout Siberia will probably make relations with 
Russia as important as her relations with any other power 
during the coming months. The chief direct effect of the 
presence of Allied troops in Siberia through the year has 
been the operation of the Chinese Eastern Railway under 
an international commission. 
Foreign Loans The reckless borrowing of the period 

before the signing of the armistice was not 
repeated during 1919. A Japanese loan of twenty million 
yen was reported on March 13. The Allied banks advanced 
small sums at various times and other loans have been 
denied or have been rejected after discussion. A loan for 
thirty million dollars gold was reported during November, 
1919, from the Pacific Development Company, an American 
corporation. This loan is secured upon the revenue from 



8 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

the Wine and Tobacco Monopoly and the provisions for the 
control of this source of revenue have made the loan 
unpopular. At the end of the year no steps had been 
taken toward the reorganization of this monopoly and no 
satisfactory arrangement seems to have been arrived at. 

~, f The most interesting financial proposal 

Consortium f t ie y ear was that of the formation of a chief 
new international bauk ng consortium. The 
points have been summarized thus:*(l) That the principal 
powers " should pool all existing and future options, except 
those already executed or in course of execution ; (2) each 
national bank group would widely represent all banks of 
that particular country which were interested in Chinese 
finance and (3) all constructive work should be carried out 
on an open and competitive basis." In September, Japan 
definitely refused to enter the consortium because of the 
failure of the other powers (Great Britain, America, and 
France) to agree to the exclusion of Mongolia and Man 
churia from the field of operations. Negotiations have 
been going on since this refusal but the fact that no advance 
from the new consortium was considered at the time of the 
Chinese New Year may be taken as evidence that the new 
consortium is not yet a factor to be considered. 

The situation within China in the mouth 
Internal O f October, 1918, when Mr. Hsu Siiili-chang 

the EnV^of assumed the office of President, was briefly 
the World this: There were two separate governments 

War in the country, one in Peking and the other 

in Canton. The Canton or Southern govern 
ment, or, as it calls itself, the government of the South 
western Federation, had become united during the summer 
of 1918 and during the early autumn it had set forth its 
position as the only legal government of the country. At 
the same time the Peking government had proceeded during 
the year with the eleclion of a new Parliament and with the 
election of a new President, and it maintained itself to be 



* North-China Daily News, January 24, 1920. 



CHINA SINGE THE WORLD WAR 

the true and legal government of the country. On the legal 
and constitutional side there was a deadlock. The legal 
side of this debate between the North and the South has 
been set forth by Professor Bevan in the YEAR BOOKS 
for the past two years and in a series of articles in the 
Chinese Social and Political Science Review. 

It would seem that war was the only way out of the 
deadlock and we find that the Southern government did 
actually declare war on the President-elect ou October 4. 
But war had been tried and had failed to bring a settlement 
between the North and the South and this new declaration 
of war was little more than an expression of refusal to 
support the new President on the part of the South. 

Not only had war shown itself useless as a means of 
bringing a final decision between the North and the South, 
but the armies of the military officials on both sides had 
shown themselves to be among the chief causes of the 
continuation of a legally impossible situation. The army 
is China s problem," said Professor Bevau in the YEAR BOOK 
for last year, "and until this military question has been 
solved there will be no solution to the constitutional 
question. . . . This, then, is the problem of the coming 
year, to put the army in its proper place, and to clear the 
field for the legitimate contestants." 

This conclusion gives more emphasis than ought to be 
given to the constitutional question. This question is 
looked upon by some few of the leaders on both sides as the 
underlying and important difference; but the army has 
almost succeeded in making China a field for the settlement 
of personal quarrels over power and money. In any case, 
however, the army has shown itself to be no means for 
settlement and to be the first obstacle to be removed in order 
that settlement may take place. 

It appears strange at first sight that two governments 
each claiming jurisdiction over the same territory and each 
with soldiers, should find themselves unwilling to use their 
soldiers to back their claims. The explanation is to be 
found in the persistent refusal of the people of common 
sense within the country to take the quarrel seriously as one 
over a fundamental issue, and the refusal of the merchants 



10 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

and men of means to lend their support to either side. The 
business men were more interested in getting rid of the 
armies of both sides than in the victory of either. 

The new president, who took office in October, 1918, 
was not chosen because he has thought to be able to take the 
most necessary step and get rid of the army with its power 
ful and independent military officials. He was chosen 
because it was hoped that his clean record and wide personal 
popularity would bring about some sort of compromise ; as 
one writer expressed it, "friendship" was to settle China s 
difficulties. The declaration of war by the South dispelled 
the hope of any easy settlement and China was face to face 
with the possibility of more fighting when the war in 
Europe came to an end. 

Before the Armistice was signed China 
Proposals j ia( j ^ gj ven a }jj u ^ t na t jj er unsettled state 

tor Internal , , . ,, -,-. v 

Peace was n t being looked upon with indifference 

by the Allied powers. On October 28, 1918, 
Japan submitted a proposal to the Allied governments for 
mediation in China. Nothing had come of this by Novem 
ber 11, when the war in Europe came to an end. 

The end of the European War seems to have put real 
meaning into the half-hearted proposals for internal peace. 
On November 12, the Peking government decided to convene 
a peace conference at Nanking or Shanghai "with a view," 
it was said, "of restoring peace between the North and 
the South as soon as possible." This was followed by the 
declaration on November 17, of an armistice between the 
North and the South. China sought to follow the example 
of Europe with commendable promptness. The reasons for 
the sudden change in China from half-hearted proposals 
for peace and equally half-hearted threats of war, to prompt 
action in the interests of peace can be guessed at only. 
There was, first, undoubtedly, the fear that foreign inter 
vention would follow the cessation of hostilities in Europe, 
since the Allied nations would now be free to take a more 
active interest in China. There was, secondly, the desire to 
act as a unit in the Peace Conference that was to follow the 
World War. There was, thirdly, the feeling that the out 
come of the war was a justification of the ideals professed 



CHINA SINCE THE WORLD WAR 11 

by the Southern government. It was also a check upon the 
confidence and the support of the Northern party. This 
brought both sides to a more conciliatory frame of mind. 
Finally, there must be noted again the feeling that in "the 
world beyond the war" all things were possible. This was 
expressed in an important document laid before the 
Shanghai Peace Conference entitled "A Proposed Plan for 
the Military and Civil Re-organization of China." "It is 
no exaggeration," said the document, "to say that the dawn 
of a happier era is imminent" ; and again, "The social order 
which humanity now seeks to establish, is one in which right 
will reign, reason will rule, justice will prevail, and 
happiness will be the pursuit of life." 

Tfa Shan hal After the armistice of November 17 the 

Conference 2 Southern government considered the proposal 
of the Peking government and appointed 
Tang Shao-yi its chief delegate to the conference. Chu 
Chi-chieu was appointed chief delegate by the Northern 
government. After much debate Shanghai was finally 
settled upon as the place for the conference, and during the 
third week in February, the conference was formally opened 
in the building formerly occupied by the German Club. 

Before the opening of the conference, there had been 
reports that fighting had been resumed in Sheusi contrary 
to the terms of the armistice. This brought the first 
difficulties and on March 1 the conference was suspended 
until April 10, when the Southern delegates declared them 
selves satisfied that the fighting in Shensi had stopped. 

On May 14 the conference was brought to an end by 
the presentation to the Northern delegation by Tang Shao-yi 
of a document covering eight points. 

These eight points present a solution of the internal 
difficulties of China which, presumably, would have satisfied 
the Southern party. Upon the constitutional side the 
solution was a compromise. President Hsu Shih-chang was 
to be recognized as the legal president of China, but at the 
same time, the declaration of the illegality of the Presiden 
tial Mandate of June 18, 1917, dissolving Parliament, was to 



12 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

make the Parliament then dissolved the legal legislature of 
the country. Many members of this Parliament had 
gathered in Canton and were at the time the legislature of 
the Southern government. Upon the legal side there is 
inconsistency in this proposal, for the legality of President 
Hsu s election carries with it, it may be supposed, the 
recognition of the legality of the Parliament that elected 
him. On the other hand the legality of the Canton Parlia 
ment carries with it, presumably, the illegality of the 
election of the President. 

The demands ot Tang Shao-yi covered other points, 
and there was a sweeping demand for the declaration of the 
invalidity of the "covenants, pacts and the like, secretly 
entered into between China and Japan," and the punish 
ment of those directly engaged in their negotiation. 

It may be guessed that the Peking government would 
have given serious thought to the solution of the constitu 
tional question thus proposed by the Southern delegation 
if it had not been for such demands as those about 
the treaties between Japan and Chini. The Northern 
government might have been willing lo admit the ille 
gality of the mandate dissolving Parliament, but it could 
not be expected to renounce willingly the legality of its 
agreements with a foreign nation, especially Japan, and to 
stand before the world discredited and shamed ; it might be 
defeated and driven from office but "it did not intend to 
suffer all the consequences of defeat by a voluntary act. 
The peace conference came to nothing and the delegates 
separated at about the same time that the Paris conference 
ended its work on the treaty with Germany. 

On June 5, a note was presented to the 
Peace Chinese government, "on behalf of the British, 

Proposals American, French, Italian, and Japanese 

governments," suggesting that the peace con 
ference in Shanghai bo resumed and that there be no resump 
tion of war. (Jhu Chi-chien refused to resume office as chief 
delegate of the Peking government and on August 11 Wang 
I-tang was appointed chief Northern delegate. This ap 
pointment was opposed and Wang 1-taug came to Shanghai 



CHINA SINCE THE WORLD WAR 13 

in the face of statements that he would not be dealt with. 
Since his arrival, Tang Shao-yi has consistently refused to 
meet him and nothing has been accomplished. Peace does 
not seem any nearer in March, 1920, than it seemed in 
October, 1918. It has been rumored from time to time that 
negotiations were going on through other channels than the 
official representatives. Mr. Tang s attempt to resign late 
in 1919 has been explained on this ground. 
R Any analysis of the reasons for the 

fo^Faflure failure of China to get peace when most of 
her people wanted peace is difficult. Little 
information has been given out about the trend of events 
from day to day in the Conference. Conversations with 
delegates and secretaries throw some light on the situation, 
but the nature of the eight demands of the Southern 
government is the most illuminating evidence. 

In the first place, the viewpoint toward the whole 
matter under discussion was not the same in the two 
delegations. The Peking government looked upon itself 
as the true government of China which was, for 
the moment, entering into discussion with a schismatic 
group. It did not do more than admit that fundamental 
matters were under discussion. The Southern delegation, 
on the other hand, took the viewpoint that the government 
of China had been disrupted and that the conference was to 
set it up anew, that all matters, even matters of fun 
damental importance, were to be taken up and settled to 
the satisfaction of two equal parties to the settlement of a 
dispute in which both sides admitted a degree of wrong- 
headedness. 

The constitutional difficulty could not be settled in 
conference and it presents a second reason for the failure. 

The third difficulty was the failure of the delegates to 
attack directly that problem which, as has been pointed 
out, is the one that must be settled before all others. It 
was the first business of the peace conference to work out 
a plan to put the army where it belongs as a servant of the 
government and the country, and not their master. No 
attention to foreign affairs, however important, and no 



14 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

consideration of constitutional problems, however funda 
mental, can bring a solution that will stand longer than 
powerful military leaders want it to, so long as the army 
dominates the situation. The third, and the chief, reason 
for the failure of the Shanghai peace conference was its 
failure to find means to bring the army into subjection to 
the civil authorities. 

n.. T . On January 2, 1919, the text of the new 

(Jtner Internal ,-. i j. j -i . i ., n 

Affairs tariff was completed, and it was submitted 

for ratification. During the year the new 
tariff came into operation and China has ceased to suffer 
from the plain injustice of a five per cent tariff that 
brought her in much less than five per cent. During the 
year there has been some renewal of opium growing within 
China. No one has attempted to estimate how widespread 
this has been. On January 17, and for some days after, the 
whole of the stock of opium in Shanghai which had been 
purchased in 1918, was burned in public. 

This public burning of opium marks the end of legally 
imported foreign opium in China and brings to a successful 
close the struggle of decades, in which the missionaries have 
played an important part.* The opium question has 
become the morphia question, and there has been an attempt 
through the year to bring effective measures to bear against 
the importation of morphia. At the meeting of the In 
ternational Opium Society on June 20 it was pointed out 
that the morphia was being imported from Japan and 
Great Britain. The North-China Daily Neivs points out 
that the British government announced, " in a letter dated 
November 25, the steps taken to prevent the export of 
morphia to China and Japan by parcels post." 

There is also to be noted the capable service for the 
public good that has been given by some officials. Governor 
Yen of the province of Shansi has achieved a reputation for 
good government, for interest in public education and 
public health, that deserves the gratitude of his people. He 
is an example of the good which the Chinese paternalistic 
system can accomplish and sometimes does bring about. 

*See, however, chapter XXIII, pp. 218-224. 



CHINA SINCE THE WORLD WAR 15 

The Traditional The traditional basis of China s social 
Basis of China s and economic life must also be taken into 
Social and ^ account in measuring the effects upon the 
Economic Life coun try of the time since the Armistice in 
Europe. The merchant proceeds with his business, the 
farmer plants and harvests his crop, and the worker carries 
on his handicraft, without paying much regard to even 
internal, to say nothing of foreign, politics. The division 
of the year s product between owner and tenant, for in 
stance, goes on as it has for hundreds of years. Through 
out the country one village community after another leads 
its life according to the traditions of its ancestors, guided 
by some leading man who applies a mixture of precedent, 
Confucian ethics, and shrewd sense, to the settlement of 
such difficulties as arise among his people; and such whole 
communities live as they have Jived, undisturbed by any 
thought of events in the next province. This is true of 
many parts of the country, though the bandit and armed 
robber make life less placid and serene in other parts. 
This inert mass is at once the danger and the hope of 
China; it is her danger because it is almost impossible to 
move, it is her hope because it cannot be destroyed. This 
great body of peasant folk must be remembered when China 
is being considered. These people are, to use a Chinese 
metaphor, the sea ; the government is the boat. These 
common men and women give the significance and serious 
ness to the knavery, the scheming, the faithlessness, or the 
loyalty and true service of political leaders and officials. 
Their welfare is hard to measure, but it is the true test of 
national success, the false tests being diplomatic ascendancy, 
prestige, and national advantage. 

~, c> , China s problem is still the army and 

1 ne situation , , , , ,, , ,. (( , - T> 

Early in 1920 what has been called the tuchunate. By 
the ascendancy of the army the problem of 
constitutional and political progress is taken out of the 
field of Parliament, and, therefore, out of the field of 
business, industrial, and intellectual life, and it is not put 
into the field of battle. The accomplishment of anything 
becomes a matter of influence, of secret conference, of the 
shrewd use of money. It is significant that under the 



16 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

baneful influence of the military situation the political 
parties of the past, such as the Kuomingtang and the 
Ghinputang, which gave some evidence of usefulness in 
constitutional development have practically disappeared 
and have been replaced by political rings and cliques, such 
as the Anfu Club. As a Chinese newspaper puts it, " In 
the North there are the Chihli and Anhwei factions crossing 
swords at each other, while in the South we have the Yun 
nan and Kvveichow parties fighting each other." 

There are several possibilities suggested. The present 
form of military ascendancy may be replaced by a single 
strong military government under a dictator. Of this there 
has been little possibility since the death of President Yuan, 
but it is still regarded as a possibility. 

The present situation may result in foreign interven 
tion. This has been seriously proposed during the year. 
With a public and solemn assurance that foreign interven 
tion would not be used for the advantage of any one power 
and would not be used to cover the seizing of economic 
advantage, such intervention might accomplish the good 
that its liberal advocates maintain. The Chinese know that 
such intervention is a possibility, but they fear that in the 
present condition of international relations such a course, 
would mean Japanese intervention. 

The third possibility is a new revolution. This has 
been advocated by such men as Dr. >un Yat-s< j n. It might 
be brought about by a union of the merchants and the 
students against the military officials and their followers; 
and some students of Chinese affairs believe that they see 
evidence that such a movement is under way. 

Recapitulation The end of the war in Europe brought 

with it a movement to bring China back into 
the path of peaceful political progress. The year just past 
has seen that movement come to nothing. Such is the 
briefest possible recapitulation of the history of China 
since the end of the World War. 



CHAPTER II 

COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 
Norman R. Shaw 

The statistics of trade for 1918 show evidence of the 
wonderful vitality of China. In spite of the disadvantages 
arising from the great world war the closing or at least 
great shrinkage of many of her best markets, the lack of 
shipping and high freights; in spite, too, of the crippling 
effects of the bitter internecine strife which swept over 
several of her richest provinces, the trade of the country 
more than held its own. With the restoration of peaceful 
conditions, of confidence and credit, it may be safely 
predicted that a boom in trade such as occurred in the 
closing years of last century after the China- Japan War and 
again after the disasters of the Boxer year, will be witnessed. 

Again and again the Western world has turned to 
China, when other sources of supply have shown signs of 
diminishing, for many of the products which modern 
civilization calls for with ever-increasing insistency. 

Agricultural TIlus in tlie ei S hties f last century a 

Resources commencement was made with the exploita 

tion of the potentially vast cotton resources 
of the country, the decade, which opened with a negligible 
exportation, closing with one of Hk. Tls. 5,000,000, which 
mostly went to Japan to supply the needs of the rising 
manufacturing industry there. Then again in 1895 the 
trade in skins, for the leather and rug industries of Europe 
and America, showed a wonderful development, increasing 
threefold in a quinquennium. By the end of the century 
the effect of railways in promoting the trade of China had 
become apparent, both internal and external commerce 
advancing by leaps and bounds. The setback administered 
by the unfortunate Boxer outbreak was only temporary, 
and a few years later China was found responding to the 



18 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

great world-wide demand for oilseeds, to be employed in 
the manifold uses of modern oil industry. In 1904 the 
exportation of oilseeds, oil cake, and vegetable oils was 
valued at close on Tls. 14,000,000 double tlie value of 
those exported ten years before, but four years later this 
amount had trebled, and in the year 1913 this figure again 
had doubled and, in spite of the war, has never receded 
from over Tls. 70,000,000. 

Mineral Wealth 

Not to labor the point, the above figures show the 
vitality of China s agricultural resources, and the tale of 
her mineral wealth has been often told, and needs but brief 
mention. 

C oa l Estimates of coal resources vary very 

widely, but the lowest states that there is 
enough coal to last for several hundred years. When it is 
considered that the present output is only 20,000,000 tons. 
of which less than half is extracted by modern methods, 
the backwardness of this industry is deplorable, but there 
can be little doubt that the next few years will witness 
striking developments, in view of the fact that labor 
troubles are restricting the output in Western lands: 
imperious necessity will cause the development of this 
fertile source of supply. 

I fon The future of China as a mineral-pro 

ducing country is based on its iron pro 
duction; this, even more than in the case of coal, has been 
retarded by the absence of transportation facilities. At 
present the output is very small, but there are avail 
able 1,000 million tons of iron ore, much of which is 
in close proximity to coal. The production of pig iron at 
present is probably not much over one million tons, but 
when it is considered that of the United States was but 
little more fifty years ago, China may be said to have a 
hopeful future before its iron trade, and there are now 
several deposits being worked by modern methods, whose 
output shows signs of increasing at a rapid rate. 



COMMERCE AN^> INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 19 



Other Minerals As * s we ^ known, China is the largest 

producer of antimony in the world, and 
although the market has declined since the end of the war, 
the demand may spring up again. Six per cent of the 
world s tin output is Chinese, and the war brought out 
some supplies of tungsten and manganese, which only need 
modern methods to render them valuable in the future. 
Lead, zinc, mercury, and copper also exist in wide areas, 
all of which will be profitably worked when the country 
is opened up. 

Manufacturing Industry 

Cotton It has been stated that the cotton crop 

of China can, by improved methods of seed 
selection and cultivation, be easily trebled without any 
increase of acreage. A conservative estimate of the crop, 
made in 1917, is 8,000,000 piculs, or nearly half a million 
tons. That the crop is increasing is indicated by the grow 
ing number of cotton mills in the country. The chief 
cotton areas are Kiaugsu and the region west of Hankow, 
but large quantities are also produced in Chihli, and the 
industry is making great strides at Tientsin, where several 
mills are in course of construction. Shansi cotton is of 
good quality, and the industry there, of recent growth, 
shows promise. 

Cotton Mills There are now some six-score cotton 

spinning and weaving mills in China, and in 
Shanghai alone it is stated that another score is to be built 
within a short space of time. According to a recent state 
ment China is now more favorably situated than almost 
any place in the world for the cotton industry, and 
enormous profits are being made at present, while the 
prospects for the next year or two are equally good. 
Shares in cotton mills have been steadily soaring, encouraged 
by the rising price of yarn, which is indicative of the 
confidence felt in the future of the trade. Nanking Uni 
versity is again prominent in assistance given toward the 
betterment of Chinese cotton, as in the case of silk : an 



20 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

expert has been engaged from America to teach in the 
agricultural department, and progress in seed selection may 
be expected. Even in far-away Shansi, without any foreign 
influence whatever, steps are being taken to develop cotton 
cultivation, and an up-to-date exhibition has recently been 
held in one of the towns in the cotton district there, which 
will surely give an impetus to local cultivation. 

1918 was a poor year for the silk trade, 
but the prospects are good, and cultivation 
is being extended in several regions, and this movement will 
continue if one or two good seasons are experienced. There 
is little doubt that the export can be easily doubled; the 
industry depends partly on the modern filatures, of which 
there are no great number, partly upon the hundreds of 
old-style " factories " on a small scale, but in the aggregate 
exceeding the former. A feature of recent date is the 
extension of the wild silk industry at Antung, Manchuria, 
where the growing demand from Japan has doubled the 
number of reeling machines in operation since the war. 
An important event in the history of the trade in 1918 was 
the formation of an International Committee for the Im 
provement of Sericulture, Chinese and foreign organizations 
both cooperating. At the stations established by the 
committee selected cocoons are sold to the rearers, who 
are showing increasing interest in the movement owing to 
the excellent results obtained from this healthy seed. 
The work of the Nanking University is especially valuable 
along these lines, and from these beginnings the revival 
of the silk industry may be confidently predicted. 

Fl our The immense wheat resources of China 

and Manchuria were, until a few years ago, 
developed only by native methods. One of the most strik 
ing features of the present time is the growth of the modern 
milling industry, which is evidenced by the decline in 
imports of flour. These amounted in 1907 to 33,000 tons, 
but in 1918 the import was practically nil, and China was 
able to export 15,000 tons abroad, mostly to Great Britain. 
There are now probably nearly eighty flour mills of modern 
style in the country, and in Harbin the Chinese have taken 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 21 

over many of the mills from the Russians. The output is 
increasing with great rapidity, and China will be able to 
export considerable quantities within the next decade. 

v hi s A ^ ie development of this industry has 

ancPoils 6 * already been referred to, but a few further 
details may be of interest. The leading seeds 
from which oil is extracted are the soya bean, groundnut 
and sesamum, but in addition there are cottonseed, rape- 
seed, linseed, castor bean, perilla, and the capsules of the 
wood-oil tree and of the tea-oil tree. Although much seed 
is exported, the tendency is for the oil to be extracted in 
China, and at the chief centers Dairen, Newchwang, and 
Harbin for soya, Hanyang and Shanghai for cottonseed 
and other oils the number of mills is increasing yearly. 
There are also innumerable small native oil mills in the 
oil-producing districts, which extract large quantities of oil. 
The seed, cake, and oil industry is next only in importance 
to that in silk, the export figures for 1918 being Hk. Tls. 
94,770,000, or in sterling 25,049,882 (G. $119,410,200). 
In view of the ever-increasing demand in the West and in 
Japan for these products, a remarkable increase may be 
predicted for the trade. It is worthy of mention that 
shipments are now being made by tank steamers of bean 
oil from Dairen to Seattle, and this economical method 
of transportation will assist the development of the in 
dustry. 

Skins and Hides T h is is also a growing industry, with a 

firm demand from the markets of the world. 
China has in some departments of the trade gained on its 
great competitor, India, but needs better methods to control 
breeding and care of the animals from which the skins are 
derived, methods to which much attention is given in India. 
The number of cattle and of goats in the country might be 
largely increased, the wool, which is of coarse texture, 
might be improved, and laws introduced to regulate the 
killing of fur-bearing animals. As it is, the export trade 
in 1918 amounted to Hk. Tls. 24,163,000 (6,386,834 and 
G. $30,445,380) which is not, however, the "record" figure, 
as war restrictions operated against trade. 



22 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

. The following simple analysis shows the share taken 
by each of the leading items of China s export trade in 
1918: 

Silk and silk products . . Hk. Tls. 107,180,000 

Tea ,, 13,928,000 

Oilseeds and products .. ,, 94,770,000 

Metals and minerals .. .. ,, 45,669,000 

Skins, furs, and leather .. ,, 25,503,000 

Eggs ,, 11,053,000 

Wool , 12,238,000 

Cotton 37,887,000 



Total Hk. Tls. 348,228,000 

These eight headings contribute seventy-two per cent 
of the export trade of China. 

A more complex analysis of the trade, both import and 
export, is given on page 25. 

The division into four classes animals, foodstuffs, 
materials, and manufactured goods was adopted by the 
International Conference of Commercial Statistics in 1910, 
and the tables show certain variations and tendencies. The 
first available figures are for 1911, and these are compared 
with those for 1918, and, in addition, the highest "record" 
figures for the principal articles are given. 

Foodstuffs The figures show, as regards foodstuffs, 

that China is importing an increasing amount, 
but that her exports do not increase in the same proportion. 
This is due to the decline in the tea and sugar trades; less 
tea is exported and more sugar imported. The necessity of 
improving the cultivation and preparation of tea is of the 
utmost importance to the country, and there are signs 
that such improvement is on the way. The Board of 
Agriculture has established a te.i -testing farm in the 
Keemuii district of Anhwei, where modern methods are in 
use, and modern methods are also being employed by the 
China Tea Company in the Ningchow tea district of 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 23 

Kiangsi. Another long-desired reform is the abolition of 
export duty on tea, which has just been put into effect. 

As regards sugar, the introduction of modern methods 
of cultivation and refining is the only plan which will save 
this once flourishing industry. Apart from tea and sugar, 
other foodstuffs are in great demand abroad. Exports of 
eggs, vegetable oils, flour, and even meat show great increase 
and the war shortage has stimulated the demand for these 
products. 

, . , , D It is in this class that the Chinese ex- 

Materials, Raw , , .-, 

and Prepared P 01 ^ trade has made such strides during 
recent years; almost every item shows im 
portant increases, but the most notable advance is in ores 
and metals. 

In this class of exports very little prog- 
Manufactured , , in i-i .c 
G 00 d s ress jias been made since 1911 ; in tact the 

percentage of manufactures exported to total 
exports has declined from 15.8 to 13.5 in 1918, although 
there is a slight increase in the actual figures. An item 
for which a favorable future may be predicted is silk 
piece goods, and lace, embroideries, grass cloth and 
similar goods, in the making of which the Chinese excel, 
are likely to meet with an increasing demand in Western 
countries. 

Imports These goods have maintained a high level 

for several years, and with the end of the war 
there has been a rush to supply the keen demand of the 
Chinese for foreign manufactures. The 1918 figures do not 
give the best index of the possibilities of the trade, since 
war restrictions still militated against it. But if, in the 
Import table, a glance is given at the "record" figures 
for some of the chief articles, it will be seen that much 
larger quantities can be absorbed than were actually taken 
in 1918. In the items dyes and machinery, cotton goods 
and thread, China appears to be eager to purchase in 
ever-increasing quantities, and the statistics for 1919 will 
probably show great advances in these and in many 
other articles. 



24 



THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 



Imports. (Figures in thousands of Hfc. TIs.) 





Total 1911 


Records 


Total 1918 


I. 


LIVING ANIMALS 322 




130 


IT. 


FOODSTUFFS 








Fish 10,088 


14,926 ( 15) 


12,615 




Rice 18,697 


34,423 ( 07) 


22,773 




Flour 8,721 


14,386 ( 07) 


722 




Tea 3,990 


7,409 ( 16) 


994 




Sugar 22,652 




60,382 




Beverages ... 3,515 




4,813 




Vegetables and 








fruits, &c. ... 3,362 




8,323 




Others 13,152 84,177 




19,393 130,020 


III. 


MATERIALS 








Tobacco 2,358 




5,864 




Timber 6,702 


13,925 ( 16) 


11,679 




Metals 5,356 


12,918 ( 14) 


10,753 




Mineral oil ... 25,891 


35,916 ( 14) 


32,147 




Coal 8,881 


15,540 ( 17) 


13,118 




Cotton 923 


8,456 ( 16) 


6,331 




Others 20,073 70,184 




18,859 98,751 


IV. 


MANUFACTURES 








Soap 2,262 








Dyes 12,255 


17,426 ( 13) 


5,204 




Medicines ... 3,255 




5,320 




Cigarettes ... 8,276 


32,061 ( 17) 


25,025 




Leather 4,404 


10,829 ( 17) 


9,778 




Cotton thread 51,513 


72,947 ( 13) 


59,146 




Woolen piece 








goods 5,616 


7,004 ( 12) 


5,056 




Cotton piece 








goods 96,203 


112,716 ( 14) 


100,178 




Clothing 3,717 




5,407 




Paper 5,650 




7,430 




Metal 18,669 




33,567 




Machinery and 








Tools 12,157 


25,586 ( 16) 


14,734 




Matches 5,303 




4,686 




Munitions ... 2,804 




14,169 




Others 95,809 327,893 




49,142 348,742 




Total Imports 482,576 




577,643 




= 64,846,150 





152,684,547 




= G. $313,674,400 


= 


G. $727,831,440 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 



25 



I. LIVING ANIMALS 
II. FOODSTUFFS 

Meat 

Eggs 

Cereals 

Flour 

Vegetables, fruit, 
etc 

Tea 



Exports 
Total 1911 
4,673 

2,843 
3,848 
6,286 
2,524 

38,802 
38,335 



Vegetable oils ... 13,374 



Records 



7,126 

14,318 ( 17) 11,033 

9,283 ( 13) 3,019 

8,538 

29,297 

55,562 ( 15) 14,067 
41,019 



Others 



7,739 113,751 



12,762 126,861 



III. RAW & PREPARED 


MATERIALS 






Skins & furs ... 


13,338 


27,008 


( 17) 20,377 


Hair & feathers 


6,201 




7,618 


Oil-cake 


22,518 




31,866 


Seeds 


15,073 


19,376 


( 12) 5,648 


Tobacco 


2,683 




4,071 


Timber 


4,646 




5,316 


Ores 


900 




9,260 


Metals 


8,940 




35,255 


Coal 


1,90B 




9,293 


Textiles 








Wool 7,648 




12,239 




Silk 74,509 




87,634 




Cotton 21,608 




38,107 




Eamie, 








hemp, 








etc. 2,610 




5,966 






106,375 




143,946 


Others 


16,593 199,173 




16,393 289,043 



26 



THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 



IV. MANUFACTURES 




Medicines ... 3,155 




Furs, dressed ... 3,181 




Silk piece goods 17,051 




Cotton ,, 2,683 




Ramie fabrics, etc. 1,560 




Embroideries, 




lace 


1,115 




Paper 


3,582 




Chinaware 


1,967 




Clothing ... 


1,438 




Cigarettes ... 


796 




Leather 


732 




Iron 


295 




Others 


22,186 


59,741 






377,338 



21,558 ( 15) 
4,466 ( 17) 



3,775 
3,789 
18,911 
4,385 
1,916 

1,436 
3,038 
2,161 
1,408 
2,180 
1,136 
1,154 
20,723 



66,012 



-. 50,704,794 
= G. $ 245,269,700 



485,883 

= 128,430,011 
= G. $612,212,580 



"Westernisation A feature of the 1917 CHINA MISSION 

of China" YEAR BOOK was the statement, so often 

reiterated by leading missionaries, that ill- 
feeling towards missions and foreigners generally had 
died away, that interest in Western institutions and methods 
is now universal, and that a spirit of inquiry had sprung 
up, especially since the Revolution. This is reflected 
in the trade returns, which show a yearly advance in the 
imports of foreign luxuries, many of which have, indeed, 
become almost necessaries to the wealthier classes. Promi 
nent among these is the use of electric plants, for lighting 
or industrial purposes. The year 1905 saw the begin 
ning of this development, which has since extended to 
some eighty cities, including most of the treaty ports. 
Kwaugtuug, with its large numbers of returned emi 
grants, shows great activity in this matter, and there 
is a market for small electric plants in many of the 
cities inland, where electric light is becoming very popular, 
and small kerosene and gasoline generators are used by 
private concerns. 

De artm ntal Another indication of the strides which 

Stores Westernization is making in China is the 

recent inauguration of large departmental 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 27 

stores in Canton, Hongkong, and Shanghai. They are able 
to undersell the foreign stores in the cheaper lines of goods, 
and cater for a clientele which is .spreading even to the 
wage-earning classes. They stock foreign goods of every 
description and their " sales " are crowded by a mass of 
humanity whose taste has been awakened for AVestern 
wares. It is probable that the next few, years will see the 
extension of these stores to many of the large centers of 
population in the interior as well as on the coast. In 
Harbin and Dairen they are of some years standing 
already. Foreign food and beverages, too, are becoming 
increasingly popularized among the wealthier class of 
Chinese, and the large foreign-style hotels built by the new 
syndicates in connection with their stores are well patronized 
by residents and visitors in Shanghai, the latter carrying 
away the taste for foreign food. Even a taste for foreign 
card playing has begun to come into fashion. 

Banking Since the Revolution the Chinese have 

shown a growing tendency to lose their 
distrust of banks, and there has been an extension of 
modern banks. This has been quite a notable feature of 
the last twelvemonth. Previously to this the Bank of China 
opened branches in many towns and many lesser banks 
have come into being in the larger coast ports. The 
tendency increases in spite of some unfortunate expe 
riences, and will continue, but it is chiefly in the case of 
foreign banks that the recent progress has been shown. In 
the Japanese leased territories there has been great 
expansion during the war, but since the Armistice there 
has been quite a phenomenal development of American 
banking in China, and new banks or their branches are 
being opened every month a sure indication of the keen 
interest taken by the United States in Chinese trade. It 
may.be mentioned that insurance of all kinds is also taking 
an increasing hold upon the Chinese. 



Building ^ n a ^ *he lading ports and inland cities 

Activity there has been, in spite of the great war, 

a constantly increasing activity in the build 

ing trade. Thus in Harbin, where the Chinese population 



28 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

has trebled recently, extensive building operations have 
been going on for two or three years; in Dairen the building 
boom is enormous, and so also in the many thriving interior 
towns of Manchuria, and similar reports come from many 
parts of the country. 

The various cement works, of which there are upwards 
of twenty of modern type, increased their output; the 
quantity of building materials of all kinds imported is 
increasing year by year. On the Yangtze the same activity 
is manifest; in many towns buildings of semi-foreign style, 
such as those to be seen in the Nanking Road at Shanghai, 
are being erected by the contractors. In the south there is 
also much construction work, and the adoption of the 
foreign style of house or shop is still another instance of the 
Westernization of the country. Among the most remarkable 
examples of industrial advance during the past two years 
is Tsingtao, which with its advantages of propinquity to 
coal mines, of cheap electric supply and waterworks, has 
now seventeen factories at work, and more to come, so that 
building has been very active in this go-ahead port. 
jyj eans Q{ The lack of extensive means of communi- 

Communicatfon caiiou is the greatest hindrance to trade in 
China, for it prevents the people becoming 
acquainted with many of the amenities of civilization which 
they would be eager to purchase if they were made known 
to them and their interest awakened. Such articles as 
mirrors, toilet goods, buttons, handbags, spectacles, clocks 
and watches, toys, enamel ware,, and numerous others 
are readily disposed of when the need of them is once felt. 
With the extension of communications now in prospect the 
introduction of these Western goods among the masses of 
the people should be of rapid growth, and China can well 
afford to pay for these and even articles which may better 
be described as luxuries, when her mineral resources are 
opened up and her agricultural wealth developed as it 
should be. 

p ostal The Chinese Post Office is an institution 

Administration whose progress is symptomatic of the na 
tional advance ; year by year it is marked 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 29 

by constant growth, and 1918 was, in spite of the tale told 
in every province but one (Chekiang) of civil war or 
brigandage, one of all-round prosperity so far as this 
department s activities are concerned. The revenue 
increased eleven per cent, and especially remarkable is the 
increased use of the money-order system. Very noticeable, 
too, is the desire, common to officials of all parties, to 
see postal facilities strengthened and protected. The 
soldiers, too, in whatever interests they are fighting, appear 
to recognize that the Post Office is an institution uncon 
cerned with party strife, but doing service for the general 
good of the country, and protection has been given by 
them to the couriers, who are allowed to travel up and 
down without hindrance. This is an excellent feature in 
the record of the year, and gives evidence of the new spirit 
abroad in the land, from which good augury may be taken 
for the future. 
Transportation The impossibility of obtaining materials 

on a large scale, together with the lack of 
finances, interfered with the extension of railways during 
the war, and in 1918 little was accomplished beyond the 
construction of one or two branch lines and the junction 
of Cliaugsha witli Wuchang. But there are indications 
that, when settled conditions have become established in 
Europe and America, and supplies of railway materials are 
available, there will be a boom in construction. Meanwhile 
the existing lines are doing well; the Government owns 
4,000 miles out of a total mileage of 6,700, and has made 
progress in operating methods and regulatory requirements, 
and the gross receipts of the railways in 1918 showed an 
increase of twenty-five to thirty per cent over the previous 
year, the increase in cost of working due to war conditions 
having been relatively small. The visit of the Chinese 
Railway Commission to Western countries is likely to bear 
fruit in increased efficiency and in extension of the present 
system. 

The number of motor cars in use, 
Moto/ 1 * 1 especially by Chinese, is making phenomenal 

Traffic advance at the present moment. These are, 

of course, restricted to a few of the large 



30 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

open ports. But in 1919 a new departure, of great signifi 
cance for the future, is the establishment of a motor-cai 
service between Kalgan and Urga. Two companies carry 
passengers on this route, covering it in two days, as against 
a ruonlh taken by camel caravans. Should this venture 
prove successful it will open the way to a great develop 
ment. Dr. Sun Yat-sen s great plan for the construction 
of 300,000 miles of railways and of 1,000,000 miles of 
roads iu China seems like a vision to the present generation, 
but no one can doubt that it will be accomplished at some 
future date, and China will then, but not until then, take 
its proper place among the great commercial nations of the 
world. 

A well-known American track builder recently ex 
pressed the opinion that the surest aid for China is good 
roads, which are the chief civiJizer of the present, and that 
with them most of the country s difficulties would disap 
pear, and further that every mile of good roads would pay 
for itself over and over again. He thinks a national road 
commission should be created to take up the work of 
road construction, and undoubtedly this would give 
employment to the great army of unemployed-disbanded 
soldiers, bandits driven to lawless courses by hunger, and 
others. The vision is a fascinating one, and is perhaps not 
so remote as it seems. 

,, , The use of motor launches is extending 

Motor ., , . . , . 

Launches very widely on the waterways in the interior. 

The West .River -and its tributaries are 
especially noteworthy in this respect. Motor boats have been 
running up river from Wuchow to Nanniug and other towns 
for many years, and their success has led to the opening 
of new lines in Kwangsi, far distant market towns having 
now been reached. The extensive water system of the rich 
province of Kiangsi is also being developed by motor craft. 
The use of motor s in junks has been experimented 
with, and in the words of Shipping and Engineering, 
there is without doubt an opportunity in China for the 
manufacturers of marine engines to accrue great profits on 
the sale of a suitable type of engine that could be fitted in 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 31 

a junk and used to aid in the propulsion of the craft 
through the water." As it is probably true that oil and 
machinery are cheaper in this kind of work than human 
labor, the introduction of the motor-driven junk on 
inland waterways is only a question of time, and this will 
revolutionize transportation on the wonderful water system 
of China. 
T But it is a lamentable fact that many 

Improvement , , J 

of Waterway ^ these waterways are in a deplorable 
condition ; the Grand Canal has shoaled so 
as to have lost much of its early usefulness as an artery 
of trade; the Yellow River has again recently proved itself 
to be China s Sorrow; and terrible inundations occur 
periodically on the West River. In 1918 various schemes 
for the improvement of these waterways were inaugurated, 
the chief being the establishment of a Board for the Improve 
ment of the River System of Chihli, which will formulate a 
scheme by which it is hoped that floods will be prevented 
and also, by the introduction of a system of irrigation, 
that agriculture will be aided. The Hwaiho and Grand 
Canal Conservancy Boards are also contemplating work 
which will open up the wealth of North Kiangsu and the 
adjacent regions, and machinery from America has arrived 
for the Grand Canal operations. Conservancy work is 
also planned for the Taihu system, which is the main 
channel of transportation for South Kiangsu and part 
of Chekiang. 

The Liao River Conservancy Board is, after a spell of 
inactivity through the death of the capable engineer in 
chief, preparing to resume a very necessary work, for the 
Liao taps a region of great potential wealth. A scheme 
for the improvement of the Canton River has also been 
drawn up and preliminary work was done some years ago 
on the improvement of the West River, that fertile source 
of misery to the rich delta of Kwangtung. These works 
await only the establishment of permanent peace and the 
provision of funds to be put in hand. Until they are 
carried out no assurance of security from flood and 
famine, with their concomitants, piracy and brigandage, 
can be felt in the South. 



32 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

Unfortunately the Yangtze, the leading waterway of 
all, has had scant consideration paid to it, for no complete 
survey exists. If a solution be found of this problem to 
which attention has been directed by the British Chambers 
of Commerce, and if all the other schemes outlined above 
be carried out, a great change will take place in transport 
conditions. This is mainly a question of funds, of the 
establishment of peace in the country, and of the creation 
of public spirit and interprovincial cooperation, and 
when these conditions have been secured, and the markets 
on the coast brought into closer touch with the interior, 
commerce will develop to an astonishing degree. 

Aviation There are unlimited possibilities for 

aviation in China, with its vast area of 
densely populated plains, and it is prophesied that 
passenger and mail transport, and with them the whole 
commercial conditions of the country, are on the threshold 
of a great change. " With the coming of a form of 
transport whose permanent way the aeroplane depots are 
technically so described is not only cheap, but easily 
removable if occasion requires, it is not merely the 
commerce of the old treaty ports that will develop. The 
complete opening up of the interior, with all its vast and 
untapped mineral and other resources, must follow. Before 
this last takes place, however, some means of bulk transport, 
such as railways (or large airships) must be put into opera 
tion."* But even for the time being the change to be 
wrought by aeroplanes in methods of doing business the 
rapid communication of mails and of valuable securities 
and of passengers to whom time may be of vast importance 
in carrying out a business deal will be incalculable. The 
Chinese Government has ordered a number of Handley-Page 
aeroplanes to inaugurate this traffic, and these machines, 
capable of carrying twelve passengers and two thousand 
pounds of freight and mail, will revolutionize conditions 
in the business world. It is prophesied by enthusiasts that 
China will soon assume an entirely different aspect as a 



* London and China Express, August 14, 1919. 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 33 

world factor as a result of this new departure in trans 
portation. 

Shipbuilding There are two first-class shipbuilding 

yards at Hongkong and three at .Shanghai 
at the former cargo boats up to ten thousand tons are con 
structed, and if extensions are made, much larger vessels 
can be built. A prominent leader of the British shipbuild 
ing trade has recently expressed his astonishment at the 
progress which has been made in the industry in China, and 
states that the Chinese are absolutely first-class workmen, 
both from the point of view of skill and industry, as well 
as being of excellent physique. In view of the low cost of 
labor, Western industry will have another serious rival to 
face in this branch when China awakens. 

The serious shortage of shipping felt especially in the 
last year of the war has now given place to an abundance 
which is only aii earnest of what is to come in the future. 
On the Pacific, American companies are preparing to take 
the share to which the interests of their trade entitle them, 
and new lines are to be established from Shanghai to 
India. On the coast and the Yangtze, conditions are 
rapidly returning to their former normal condition before 
the war. 

Rise in Cost ^ TO rernai ^ s on economic conditions in 

of Living China to-day would be complete without 

some reference to the increase in the cost 
of living. This has, of course, not become such a serious 
problem as in the home countries, and has not affected 
the inland population the great peasant class so severely 
as the dwellers in the great cities, and especially in 
the treaty ports. But it is nevertheless a general 
phenomenon; the price of rice, the staff of life, has 
soared far above the point where it was a generation 
ago; transportation charges are much higher, and wages 
have risen in all important industries. The price of coal, 
to take an instance, if converted into gold money, would 
stagger even those who complain of exorbitant rates at 
home. While the import trade gains by the unprecedented 
exchange of these days, the export trade is placed at a 



34 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

serious disadvantage, only counteracted by the keen 
demand in Western markets. Referring to the rise in 
wages, this is evidenced by the prevalence of strikes for 
better pay, which have been a feature of the industrial 
life of, e. g., Shanghai in the past few months, almost every 
industry having been affected. The bounteous crops 
harvested for several years in succession have been a 
providential aid to China at this time, and, if river con 
servancy and the improvement of transportation facilities 
be energetically pushed, crops will be rendered surer and 
more available, and the effects of the rise in cost of living 
made to bear less hardly on the people. 

Chinese Manufactures 

The year 1919 is memorable for the movement for 
buying native goods, and undoubtedly Chinese manufactures 
have received a considerable stimulus throughout the land. 
In many lines the production is now carried out by 
Chinese hands. As already seen, certain piece goods and 
cotton yarn are made in large quantities; hosiery and 
singlets are other items for which there is a heavy demand. 
Apart from the large cotton mills, -whose output increases 
so largely every year, the weaving industry is carried on in 
small shops and in countless homes in every section of the 
country. Sewing and knitting machines are in great 
demand, the nankeen industry, which turns out a cheap 
and durable cloth, is flourishing, and in many other lines 
domestic manufactures are supplying the needs of the 
people for cheap goods. Match factories are, after many 
struggles, turning out large supplies, brick works, glass 
works, pottery works (which make for the foreign market 
as well as for home supply) are on the increase. Especially 
prominent are factories for making candles and soap, the 
demand for which is unlimited. Rice, flour, oil, and paper 
mills increase in number and productivity yearly, and there 
are many lesser industries which have made a beginning. 
A useful list of factories may be found in the Gazetteer 
published by the Far Eastern Geographical Establishment 
in 1916, but this would already need very considerable 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHINA IN 1918 35 

addition to make it, complete. Many of the factories in 
this list are, of course, foreign-owned, hut the Chinese 
themselves have awakened to the necessity of owning their 
own industries to a far larger extent than at present. 
Various provinces from time to time organize propaganda 
for encouraging domestic industries, and there is a central 
association for their development. 

_, This review would not be complete 

American Trade .,, , 
Activity without a note on the development of 

American trade with China in the present 
year. J918 was disappointing, as there was a considerable 
decline in the import trade, but, as soon as war restrictions 
on exports from the United States had been removed, 
American goods began to move to China, and this movement 
is increasing daily as shipping facilities are provided on the 
Pacific. The number of firms in China is being added to 
at a wonderful rate, and there is an influx of commercial 
men, <f spying out the land " or settling for residence, which 
shows that Chinese-American trade, whose development has 
been so unaccountably retarded, is now firmly established. 

Conference of ^ n s pi te f tlie decline in British trade with 

British China, due solely to the untoward influence of 

Chambers the war, there was a spirit of optimism 

manifest at the conference of the British 
Chambers of Commerce, held in November at Shanghai. 
British trade has indeed, during the present year, shown a 
remarkable revival, of which the new organization will 
insure the continuance. Cooperation has been conspicuously 
absent in the past, and only by its assistance can British 
trade maintain the high position which it gained in early 
days. It was this feeling which brought about the formation 
of the union of Chambers, and it was deepened by the 
experience gained by " getting together." Perhaps the 
most interesting feature of the conference was the sentiment 
of sympathy for China in its task of building up a new 
civilization on modern lines, a sentiment expressed in 
several of the resolutions. 

Conclusion I n ^ ue words of an eminent economist, 

the expansion of Western trades to India and 



36 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

China is about to become the dominating economic incident 
of the twentieth century. "China," as Sir John Jordan 
has said, in one of his eloquent discourses, "is soon to 
embark upon a great industrial career, for which her raw 
materials and the genius of her people are admirably suited, 
and for many years to come her industries will be com 
plementary to those in the more developed countries, 
whose policy appears therefore to lie in the direction of 
fostering the native industries in cooperation with the 
Chinese, in supplying technical and financial assistance and 
business organization, directed towards the increase of 
production of wealth which will contribute to the wealth 
of the world and will help to repair the waste of war." 



CHAPTER III 

THE PROBLEM OF ESTABLISHING A DEMOCRACY 

IN CHINA 

K. S. Liu 

,.,,_,, The establishment of a genuine democ- 

A Gradual , , 

Process racv 1S a problem everywhere. For democ 

racy, as is well known, is more than a form 
of government, it is something highly spiritual in 
character ; it is an ideal, a spirit that should pervade all 
departments of life and all kinds of institutions, domestic, 
social, political, educational, and religious. It is a matter 
of slow growth coupled with intelligent, systematic plan 
ning. For this reason it cannot be brought about by such 
external means as political revolutions. 

Survival of Old Applying this general principle to the 

Ideals Chinese situation, we may say that the 

revolution of 1911 only served to bring about 
a change of the form of government or to set up a new kind 
of governmental machinery in place of the Manchu regime. 
There was no essential change in the attitude and ideals of 
the people. As a result of this we have a republican form 
of government with an almost complete survival of the 
ideals and dispositions formed under the old monarchy or 
monarchies. 

It has been said that the old institutions in China have 
been more or less of a democratic character. For instance, 
the old system of competitive examinations, as well as the 
examination system, which dated further back, was demo 
cratic in that these examinations were open to all who 
possessed the necessary qualifications, irrespective of birth, 
wealth, or other external advantages. Then the patriarchal 



38 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

system in the interior, though slowly disintegrating under 
the impact of Western influences, has made possible a great 
deal of local autonomy. The government in its relation to 
the local districts was until very recently governed by the 
" laissez faire" principle long ago enunciated by Laotze, 
which says, " Govern a big nation like frying a small fish." 
Such a condition obtains not only in the country but in 
cities as well. The existence of the various guilds testifies 
to the fact that people in various walks of life have learned 
to manage their own affairs, free from governmental 
control or interference. 

D { In the light of the above-mentioned facts, 

Generalising ^ seems that for the Chinese people to pass 
from an absolute monarchy to a republic is 
not so abrupt a transition us is generally supposed. Indeed 
it is said that there has been a continuous development. 
However, such facts represent but a partial view of Chinese 
life. And it is a hazardous procedure to make a generaliza 
tion on the basis of such data. We shall now pass on to 
enumerate certain facis which, in our opinion, have been 
operating against genuine democracy. 



The Literate P^ ace ^ ma y ^ e sa ^ that, 

Unprogressive while in China there is no caste system so 
rigid as that which prevails in India and no 
aristocracy of blood as a relic of feudalism, the intellectual 
aristocracy, made up of scholars trained in the classics, 
must be considered as a force operating against liberalism 
and democracy, especially since the government of the 
people was placed in their hands. As a rule, they are 
"children of the status quo," wedded to old ways of 
thinking. Chinese stagnation has been attributed, as by 
Babington, to two thousand years of scholar-governors.* 
Moreover, by virtue of the special privileges which they 
enjoy, they foster class domination. The whole distinction 
between C/d ui tse (the princely man) and Siao ren (the 



* " Fallacies of Kace Theories," quoted by Todd in his Theories 
of Social Progress. 



ESTABLISHING A DEMOCRACY IN CHINA 39 

ordinary man) is wholly undemocratic in character. 
Education must be universal and accessible to all, not 
merely a luxury enjoyed by the select few. 

Secondly, while there is a certain amount 
Chinese Lacking Q j i oca [ autonomy or self-government in 

in Community , . , J . , , . . , 

Spf r it certain places, there is lacking that community 

sense which is so indispensable to the life 
of a democracy. There is lacking that spirit of public 
service or whole-hearted devotion to common ideals or ends. 
Chinese society, dead and inert, is like an individual 
suffering from paralysis. The individuals comprising 
the society are not capable of genuine teamwork. They 
do not form what Wundt calls a gesammlpersonlichkeit; 
though it should be added, as 1 shall point out later, that 
there are indications now of a growth of such spirit which 
gives one ground for hope that democracy is coming. 

Finally, I may say that, in the absence 

B /? n?,4 Down o f tlie s P irit of P ublic service, to have a 
ot the (Jld . r , , , r , , . 

Restraints monarch at the head ot the government, no 

matter how weak he may be personally, has 
the good effect of keeping within bounds those with selfish 
ambitions. Such a check of course disappeared with the 
abolition of the Manchu regime. And with this there 
were let loose forces which are little less than demoniacal in 
character. There has taken place a reckless struggle for 
self-aggrandizement, in utter disregard of right principles. 
Special interests take the place of the common good a 
situation which finds almost no parallel in the history of 
China. For even under the worst regime in the past there 
was always some concern for the welfare of the people. 

s jf s , . One becomes convinced of the truth of 

the Root Evil this statement, if one looks back on the 
history of the republic. The few years of 
its existence have been characterized by a general seeking 
after power, a riding roughshod over the rights of the 
people. These facts have given rise to the second revolu 
tion, the first attempt to restore the monarchy, the third 
revolution, the second movement to restore the monarchy, 



40 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

and the present split between North and South. So long as 
this situation lasts, there is no hope for China. 
The Peace What, then, is the remedy? Some peo- 

Conference pie seemed to place a great deal of confidence 
in the peace conference when it met in Shang 
hai for the first time. Now they have become disillusioned. 
They have come to see that the peace the delegates were 
negotiating was merely an adjustment of special, selfish 
interests. Whatever settlement they might reach would not 
be conducive to the good of the people. It was not the 
interests of the people which they had in mind. For this 
reason the enlightened people have as little confidence in 
the South as in the North. The two parties may before long 
reach some sort of an agreement, but that will not bring 
about real peace. A balance of selfish interests cannot 
in the nature of things last long. A slight shifting on 
either side is liable to destroy it. 



Struggles over ^ ne ^ n( ^ s au excellent illustration of 

the Cabinet this adjustment of selfish interests in the 
present difficulties connected with the forma 
tion of the cabinet. The whole thing is how to apportion 
the various portfolios so as to satisfy the various cliques 
into which those now in power are divided. And it is not 
so much a conflict of ideals or principles as one of selfish 
interests which separates these cliques. To be sure, an 
adjustment of such interests is likely soon to be forthcoming. 
But no sooner will such an equilibrium be reached than 
something will happen that will tend to destroy it. And 
then the same old conflict ensues. Thus we have one 
disturbance following another and there seems to be no end 
to this ever-recurring series. 

The Remedy Coming back to the question as to how 

the situation may be remedied, I venture to 
say that China s hope or the destiny of the democracy lies 
in her people. We must give up the hope of building up a 
genuine democracy through governmental agencies, that is, 
with the help of the present political parties of cliques. 
They have failed, and we must look for help in other 
directions. 



ESTABLISHING A DEMOCRACY IN CHINA 41 

~,, c , A couple of years ago such an idea 

The Student , / , 

Movement occurred lo a small group ot professors and 

students in the National Peking University. 
Under the direction of Chancellor Tsai Yuan-pei the idea 
was elaborated and propagated until it resulted in the 
Patriotic Movement that was inaugurated on May 5, 1919, 
which date may be taken as the beginning of a new era for 
the democracy in China. 

Its Origin Some people seem to think that what 

caused the movement was the decision of the 
Paris Conference to give Japan the rights which Germany 
had formerly enjoyed in Shantung. This is, of course, a 
mistake. The Shantung question was not the cause of this 
movement any more than the fall of the apple was the cause 
of Newton s discovery of the Law of Gravitation. The 
Paris Conference can at best be considered as the occasion 
of the movement. Its cause lay much deeper and further 
back. It served only to fan to a flame the fire that had 
already been smoldering. The feeling of dissatisfaction 
had been so deep-seated and so intense that the slightest 
stimulus might call into play or release the forces already 
latent in the soul of the nation. 

~, p. . When the movement first arose, as is well 

Student Strike known, it was largely political in character 
directed against the three traitors, in the 
cabinet, Tsao, Chang, and Su. Failing to secure their 
removal from office by means of telegrams, the students, 
whose number is estimated at seventy thousand, went on 
strike, which was soon followed, largely through the efforts 
of students, by the closing of shops in the important cities. 
This continued until the three traitors tendered their resigna 
tion which was soon accepted. Then the student strike came 
to an end. It may be added here that, while the movement 
was in progress, and incidental to it, there was another 
movement, namely the boycott against Japanese goods. 
Aside from its effect on Japan and on Chinese industrial 
expansion, it served as a means of developing a national 
consciousness a certain like-mindedness among those who 



42 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

participated in the work. But it was only a side issue, and 
should be regarded only as such. 

The Movement Considered in itself, the movement might 

Successful be regarded as a failure. It secured only the 

resignation of the three traitors and the 
government itself remained practically uneffected. There 
is now the same conllict of cliques and the same struggle for 
self-aggrandizement. But, in our opinion this is not the 
proper way of evaluating this movement. V\ 7 e should not 
judge of the success or failure of the movement merely by 
what has thus far been accomplished. We must consider its 
potentialities and the consequences it brings in its train. 

From this latter viewpoint the movement must be 
regarded as a splendid success. It is the best thing that 
China has ever had. It brings with it consequences whose 
range is as yet unforeseeable. All such consequences are 
brought together in a new movement that is beginning to 
spread in China. This is what is called the New Cullure 
Movement (Sin Wen HIM Ying Tung). It is a continua 
tion of the one which was launched on May 5, but much 
more far-reaching. It is estimated that there are now 
published in China no less than three hundred periodicals 
whose purpose it is to interpret the meaning and implica 
tions of this movement and thereby propagate it. Among 
these may be mentioned La Jeunesse, the Renaissance, the 
Journal of the Young China Association, and the New 
Education. If we interpret it aright, it has several aspects 
and includes within it several elements. It aims to create 
a new attitude toward things, a new outlook on life, and a 
richer and higher form of life. 

Taken as a whole, the movement is highly 
China CW spiritual and intellectual in character. Jn- 

Movement tellectually it corresponds to the Age of the 
Sophists or the Age of Enlightenment in 
Western history. There is a general skepticism about the 
permanent value of the old customs, the ordinary modes of 
life and thouglit. There is a craving for freedom from the 
old shackles. This phase of the movement should, of course, 



ESTABLISHING A DEMOCRACY IN CHINA 43 

be properly directed, otherwise it may degenerate into a sort 
of moral nihilism, a denial of even such values as should be 
conserved. What we need is not so much a destroying as a 
fulfilling, a revision and extension of the older ideals of 
life. This is what is properly called reconstruction. 

Its Social Aims ^ n ^s social aspect it aims to secure a 

wider distribution of knowledge, in a word, 
to democratize learning. Those who are working to 
promote the movement realize that there can he no genuine 
democracy, no real social progress, unless the mass of the 
people are enlightened. For this reason they put a great 
deal of emphasis on the social spirit and motives as ex 
pressed in various forms of social service, the most important 
of which is popular education. 

The aim of the whole movement is to provide a new 
basis for the life of the nation in the future. With such a 
change of ideals and attitudes it will no longer be possible 
for autocracy to remain in power. The people will no 
longer be content to be kicked back and forth like a football, 
as though they had no free will. They will no longer 
acquiesce in the status quo, but will demand something better. 
Thus and thus only can a real democracy be built up. 

Of course there is need for more than 
Greafcst * freedom from autocracy. There is need for 
Contribution a higher form of freedom freedom from one s 
narrow life and from the enthrallment of 
custom. Such freedom will be secured by devotion to 
common ends or ideals. It is this like-mindedness, this 
working for social ends, the spirit of the "we" as opposed to 
that of the "1" that China needs more than anything else. 
And it is here that Christianity can make its greatest con 
tribution to this New Culture Movement. 

It has been said that democracy is something spiritual, 
not merely a form of government. It is the spirit that 
should pervade all forms of institutional life. In China 
this spirit is expressing itself in the movement to substitute 
the colloquial for the literary language, the emphasis on 



44 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

the socializing of education, the introduction of self- 
government into the schools, and the general demand for 
the emancipation of Chinese women, which may soon result 
in a feminist movement. 

Things are moving in China and moving in the direc 
tion of democracy. We cannot return to the status quo 
before the fifth of May any more than the world can return 
to the status quo ante bellum. There are signs of the advent 
of democracv on all hands. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE STUDENT MOVEMENT 
Monlin Chiang 

The student movement may be considered as a turning 
point of China s national history. The dismissal of the 
"traitors" and the refusal of China to sign the peace 
treaty at Versailles, however important iu themselves, are 
less significant and far-reaching in their results than the 
ascendancy of the popular voice in China. The people 
have learned that the strength of their concerted action is 
much stronger than armed force. The government was 
finally brought to terms by the popular movement. Even 
officials at Peking have awakened at last to the fact that 
after all public opinion cannot be disregarded entirely. 
Causes There are several causes underlying the 

student movement. First, the end of the 
World War and the defeat of Germany set the students to 
thinking seriously. They began to wonder why the 
military-efficient Germans were defeated by the Allies. 
They began to hear that democracy had won a victory over 
militarism. So they began to reason that if they could 
unite and make their voices heard, they might bring about 
social and political reforms in China. Second, the critical 
spirit of the professors of the National University of Peking 
had lead the students to such a mental attitude that they 
began to doubt everything traditional traditional ideas of 
literature, of the family, of society and government. 
Thirdly, the corruption of the Peking Government as welJ 
as of the Canton Government, made the students begin to 
feel that both of the governments could not be trusted with 
the duty of carrying out the much-desired reforms in China. 
They were ready to take direct action in matters of state, 
if there should be a chance. 

Before the students of Peking showed any sign of the 
demonstration of May 4, some of the leaders in the new 



46 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

educational movement, who had been observing the spirit 
of unrest among the students, predicted that something was 
going to happen. The international politics in Paris 
supplied fuel to the already burning desire of the students 
to strike. All of a sudden there came the news that by 
the decision of the Supreme Council in Paris the German 
rights in Shantung were given over to Japan. This set the 
whole country in indignation and hundreds of telegrams 
poured into Peking and Paris from various parts of the 
country protesting against the high-handed policy of Japan. 
The Peking officials were blamed by the people for making 
secret "agreements" or "understandings" with Japan. 

Who Were ^ was ar gued that there must be some 

Responsible? high officials in the Peking Government who 
were responsible for the whole matter of losing 
Kiaochow. The whole country fixed the responsibility upon 
three men whom the people denounced as "traitors": 
Chao Ju-lin, the Minister of Communication, Lu Chung-yu, 
Minister of Finance, and Chang Chung-hsiang, Minister at 
Tokyo who had just returned from Japan on leave. These 
three men were known to the people as being responsible 
for the pro-Japanese policy of the Peking Government. 

~, ~ ., In the morning students from thirty- 

The Fourth , , 11 T) , . ,, , J 

of May three schools and colleges in Peking, fifteen 

thousand strong, paraded the streets as a 
demonstration against the Shantung decision. Three thou 
sand of them went to the Legation Quarter to ask the Allied 
ministers to use their good offices to secure justice for 
China. They were prevented by the police from entering 
the Legation grounds. After standing at the entrance for 
two hours, the crowd turned away aud-went to the residence 
of Chao Ju-lin. The crowd demanded that he appear 
in person and explain to them why he made the secret 
"agreements" with Japan by virtue of which he sold 
Shantung to her. The gates of Chao s palatial mansions 
were closed and guarded by the police. But the maddened 
crowd forced the gates open and rushed in. Everything in 
the lavishly-furnished rooms was smashed to pieces by the 
angry crowd. Some of the buildings were set on fire. It 



THE STUDENT MOVEMENT 47 

happened that Lu Chung-yu and Chang Chung-hsiang, 
the other two " traitors," were at Chao s house. Both 
Chao and Lu escaped, but Chang was unfortunately 
caught and beaten to unconsciousness by the crowd. Then 
the reenforcement of the police appeared on the scene and 
the crowd was dispersed by the police at the point of the 
bayonet. Thirty-two students were arrested and brought to 
the Metropolitan Police Station. 

Cabinet Meeting The cabinet members met at the private 
residence of Premier Chien in the evening. 
Some of the members advocated the dissolving of the Na 
tional University. Others recommended the dismissal of 
Chancellor Tsai Yuan-pel of the National University. But 
the Minister of Education, Mr. Fu Chung-shang, refused to 
accept the recommendations. 

Next morning it was reported that Chang Chung-hsiang 
was dead and the students arrested were summarily 
sentenced to death by the military authority. The presi 
dents of fourteen higher educational institutions went to the 
Chief of Police and demanded the release of the students. 
The Chief of Police assured the presidents that the students 
were safe with him, but he had no authority to release 
them. 

The Peking students refused to attend the classes as a 
protest aginst the arrest of their fellow students. They 
declared that they would not return to work until the 
thirty -three students were released. 

On May 7, the boys were released and welcomed 
back to their respective institutions as heroes amidst ac 
clamations and tears. The next day a presidential mandate 
was issued instructing the authorities to prosecute the 
students who were ringleaders for the popular demonstra 
tion. This resulted in hundreds of protests being sent to 
Peking by educational bodies from various parts of the 
country. The resignation of Chancellor Tsai on May 9 
caused another great sensation among the students. 
Thanks to the good offices of the Minister of Education, 
Mr. Fu Chung-shang, the resignation of the chancellor was 
not accepted. Mr. Fu s policy of moderation displeased 



48 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

his colleagues in the Cabinet and, on May 19, he resigned 
his post as Minister of Education. Both the chancellor 
and the minister left Peking as soon as they sent in their 
resignations. 

Street Lectures T ne students petitioned the president 

asking for the return of Mr. Fu and Dr. 
Tsai to their respective offices, the dismissal of the 
" traitors," and that the treaty of peace with Germany 
be not signed. The government did not pay any attention 
to the petition except that a mandate was issued on the 
fourteenth of May refusing to accept the chancellor s 
resignation. The mandate was couched in such a language 
that any one could feel that the government meant that his 
services in the university was no longer needed. 

Therefore, the students began to make appeals to the 
people by lecturing in the streets of Peking. The inter 
ference of the police caused some conflicts between the 
students and the police, but nothing serious happened. On 
May 20, the Students Union in Peking declared a general 
strike of all the students in Peking. The students Avere 
thus released from work and came out in large numbers 
delivering lectures in the streets. The police were helpless in 
coping with the situation. The government called out the 
troops to break up the crowds that were listening to the 
lectures of the street orators. 

Student Since the strike of the students declared 

Strikes on M av 20, other cities were falling rapidly 

into line. The students in Tientsin declared 
a sympathetic strike on May 23, in Tsinan on the 
24th, in Shanghai on the 26th, in Nanking on the 27th, 
in Paotiiigfu on the 28th, in Ankiug on the 30th, and 
in Hangkow, Wuchang, and Kaifeng on the 31st. By 
the end of May, student strikes had spread practically 
all over China. The government had utterly ignored 
the fact that the feelings of the people throughout the 
whole country had been stirred to the highest pitch 
On June 1, two offensive mandates were issued simul 
taneously, one eulogizing the good work done by the 
"traitors" and the other reprimanding the students for 
their misconduct. 



THE STUDENT MOVEMENT 49 

{ By way of protest n gainst the foolhardy 

Students policies of the government, the students in 

Peking went mad and thousands of them went 
out to lecture in the streets, braving the bayonets of the 
armed police and soldiers. The government finally resorted 
to a drastic but foolish measure by ordering the wholesale 
arrest of a large number of students that were lecturing in 
the streets. On June 3 and 4, in two days, the police and 
soldiers arrested more than one thousand students. Finding 
no prison large enough to hold so many prisoners, the 
authorities took possession of the National University and 
converted the seat of learning into a prison. They did not 
take into account the difficulty of feeding more than a 
thousand students and no adequate preparations were made. 
So the boys had to stay in the prison " without food 
for some time. Nothing other than this would have aroused 
so much sympathy for the students on the part of the 
public. 
Business Strikes The Peking students sent a telegram in 

the afternoon of June 4 asking the students 
in Shanghai to help. In the evening the Shanghai 
students went out in large numbers to the shops, asking 
the merchants to help by declaring a general sympathetic 
strike. The shopkeepers responded generously by closing 
their shops the next morning. On June 5, all Shanghai 
was on strike. The government was by this action forced to 
release the imprisoned students on June 6. 

On that day the shops in other cities in the vicinity of 
Shanghai were also closed to business. Sungkiaug, Ningpo, 
Amoy, Nanking, Hangchow, Wusih, "Wuhu, Hankow, 
Tsinan, Tientsin, and other cities also fell rapidly in 
to line. 
Demands Made Now all the classes of the people united 

together iu demanding the dismissal of the 
" traitors." On June 10, the resignations of the "traitors" 
were accepted by the president. Shanghai did not receive 
authentic news until in the afternoon of June 11. On the 
next morning, June 12, all the shops in Shanghai opened 
again to business. Thus the people, by their united effort, 
won a victory over the government. 



50 THE GENERAL SITUATION IN CHINA 

~, . During the strikes, as necessity demanded, 

Young China ,, . , ,, , J . , 

Organizing the people organized themselves in order to 

do effective work. The strikes taught the 
people that their strength lies in organization. So the 
students as well as the merchants began to organize them 
selves in a permanent manner. During the strikes, hundreds 
of students unions sprang up in many places all over the 
country like bamboo shoots. On June 16, "The National 
Chinese Students Alliance was organized in Shanghai. 
Representatives were sent to Shanghai from various local 
unions to participate in the formation of the national 
alliance. By the declaration of this national organization, 
on June 22, the nation-wide student strikes came to an 
end. 

In Shanghai the merchants organized themselves by 
the streets where their business houses are located. Each 
street formed a union and, by uniting together all the 
" street unions," a central organization was formed known 
as "The Federation of the Street Unions of Shanghai." 
In Tientsin, all the classes of people incorporated them 
selves into one organization which is called The Federa 
tion of All Classes." The membership of the organization 
consists of the students union, the educational association, 
the merchants union, the labor union, etc. Other cities like 
Peking and Shanghai soon followed suit. In Shanghai a 
national organization was formed which is called "The 
National Alliance of the Federations of All Classes." 
These various organizations are serving now as the control 
ling forces of public opinion in China. 

After this nation-wide student movement, 
What the ^j ie s t u dents in China are carrying on their 

Students Are , . , . i j 

Doing work in two lines, namely, social service and 

a " cultural movement." The forms of 
social service being carried on are the opening of schools 
and the giving of popular lectures. In Shanghai and its 
vicinity, the students have established eight schools, three 
for poor children, two for laborers, two for farmers, and one 
for country boys. Schools of these kinds have also been 
established by the students in Nanking, Tientsin, Peking, 



THE STUDENT MOVEMENT 51 

and other cities. Lectures are delivered to the masses by 
the students on such topics as public hygiene, patriotism, 
the boycott of Japanese goods, etc. 

The "cultural movement" aims to spread new ideas 
among the educated classes. Since May about three 
hundred and fifty weekly bulletins have been published, 
either by the students or by those who sympathize with the 
students. These weeklies are usually printed on one sheet 
of paper, half the size of a daily paper, doubled over, 
making four pages. By glancing over these papers, one 
will find topics discussed such as these: What is the 
meaning of life?" "Emancipation of women," "The 
curse of militarism in China," "The problem of co 
education in China," " The future of the Chinese lan 
guage," " Why we should adopt the vernacular language," 
The reorganization of the family system in China," 
The change of the marriage system in China, etc. Most 
of these papers attack the existing order of things in 
China and advocate revolution in literature, in society, in 
family, in thought, and in a thousand and one lines. The 
day of the critical spirit is dawning upon China. Besides 
the new publications, the students have organized public 
lecture courses. Prominent persons are invited to talk on 
timely subjects. 

Young China has become discontented with the old 
ways of living and old modes of thinking. She is now 
looking forward to a new and richer life. 



PART II 

CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 
CHAPTER V 
THE OUTLOOK 
C. G. Sparham 

In comparing the Chinese of to-day with 
Physical ^ IQ Qhj uese O f thirty years ago two things 

Changes m . / . 

Educated standout; one is a physical change, the other 

Chinese the development of mental alertness. Then, 

the Chinese scholar was round-shouldered, 
often anaemic; he wore long garments with exaggerated 
sleeves, he moved slowly, and his eyes were fixed on the 
ground. His brain power may have been considerable but 
it was lethargic; his muscles counted for little. To-day, 
largely owing to the work of Christian schools, with their 
healthy ideal for physical well-being, made apparent in 
daily drill, football and other games, a new conception of 
student life has arisen. The student is of good physique, 
upright and energetic. He takes to life in the open air and 
is fond of camping out. The scout movement has been 
taken up with zest and it is a joy to watch the scouts either 
at work or at play. 

There may not be so great a difference 
v t Y lit f th * n ^ le ordinary people and yet among them 
Masses 7 development is marked. We may deplore 

the military spirit that has seized upon the 
Chinese and still admit that the drilling and marching, the 
outdoor life and discipline, have made for physical well- 
being. Has not a good word also to be spoken for the 
humble ricksha? A few men may strain themselves but 
the great majority of the ricksha men appear to be in 
splendid muscular condition ; they make good money, they 



THE OUTLOOK 53 

develop their powers of endurance and appear to find their 
life healthy and pleasant. In the matter of physique and 
physical energy these men are undoubtedly a national 
asset. The writer has traveled fairly widely during the 
yeai both in North and South China and the general im 
pression left on his mind is of a people physically leaving 
little to be desired. 

jy[ j>nta l Mental alertness is equally character- 

Alertness istic. Thirty years ago the only study of the 

Chinese was the Confucian Classics, with 
possibly a slight addition of Buddhist or Taoist literature. 
The student toiled early and late to gain the wisdom and 
style that the classical literature could give him; and no 
one who knew the men of that day will deny that they did 
gain much by their studies; yet of powers of comparison 
they could make little boast. But Christianity, with its 
injunction, "Prove all things; hold fast that which is good," 
has been making rapid progress. It has brought in new 
ideals for individual, social, and national life. 

The boys and girls who are being educated in Christian 
schools and colleges have always two ideals before them 
the Eastern and the Western ; the Confucian and the 
Christian. They are bound to compare and think. The 
men and women who have studied in Western lands have, 
during their college days, been in touch with ideals and 
social conditions that differ toto ado from those of their 
early surroundings; and still more deeply than the ordinary 
student have they begun to consider and compare. But 
quiet comparison develops into a clash of ideals and from 
this there evolves a very vigorous critical faculty. 

Everything is criticized to-day social 
Critical institutions, educational matters, business 

Faculty methods, principles of government, religion 

itself. Christianity by no means escapes. 
This msans unsettleaient; but inasmuch as the aim is to get 
down to a basis of fact and indestructible principle, we may 
welcome it. The leaders are serious and honest and we 
have no reason to fear the vigorous investigation that is 
taking place. 



54 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

The government is criticized for being a republic in 
form yet not truly a democracy. The officials are criticized 
for their curruptness and lack of true patriotism. Business 
methods are criticized because while from without the 
Chinese merchant has acquired a reputation for honesty, 
behind the scenes it is said there may be found a dishonesty 
similar to that which is known in government circles. Papers 
like the New Youth (H-nn Chin Nien~) and the New Educa 
tion (Hdn Ckiao Yu} are appreciated because they are 
critical, often destructively critical; but we need not 
fear; they seem determined to get to the bottom of all 
things, to find the ultimate reality and then to build 
anew upon that. 

Discontent There is grave discontent everywhere, 

but it is healthy discontent and the first con 
dition of advance. The voice of the government is no 
longer the voice of the people. Too often the two voices 
are diametrically opposed the one to the other. Almost 
every question has the conventional viewpoint and the 
viewpoint of the reformer. The opinion of the people at 
large is not well defined but it leans toward reform; this is 
true, while the masses in the main drift along in the old 
unreformed way. 

One of the most difficult problems that 
the Lea S ue of Nations will have before it will 
People be to decide which is to be regarded as the 

voice of the Chinese nation. Presumably the 
statesmen will say that the voice of the government must be 
accepted as the will of the people. The position is a per 
fectly natural one for them to take, and yet most 
emphatically the government does not speak for the nation. 
The Chinese people dread beyond all things encroachment 
from Japan, they fear lest they -may become a tributary 
nation. The government in a single year borrows 22,- 
000,000 from Japan and pledges some of the richest 
resources and interests of the country coal mines, iron 
mines, forests, railway construction, and so on to the 
Japanese Government. 



THE OUTLOOK 55 

Ta an and ^ * nere * s one province in China that 

Shantung touches the sentiment of the Chinese people 

more deeply than another it is the province 
of Shantuug. This is the classic ground of China. Con 
fucius and Mencius were born and died within that 
territory. Their graves are still to be seen and are centers 
of reverent pilgrimage. The most sacred traditions of the 
classical period of Chinese life are associated with the 
group of mountains known as Tai Shan and the surround 
ing country. The Chinese speak of this whole district as 
their sheng tu, or Holy Land, yet the government has given 
power and influence increasingly to Japan in this province. 
The German concession in Tsingtau with perhaps the 
finest harbor on the China coast, has been leased to Japan, 
and the former German rights in railways and mines have 
gone in the same direction. Japan has been granted by 
the government a dominant position in the whole province, 
and Japanese flooding in greatly exceed the number of the 
former German residents. The Peace Conference has 
accepted the action of the Chinese Government as binding 
on the Chinese nation, and the Peace Treaty supports the 
action of the government in favor of Japan ; but the more 
it becomes plain that Chinese rights have been given away, 
the more does the nation as a whole show its intense resent 
ment. There is a determination to go to all lengths to 
secure reconsideration. The students are acting as the 
spokesmen of the people, and the sympathy and financial 
support of the merchants are given to the students. When 
students and merchants get together they fairly represent 
the brain and will power the executive force of the Chinese 
people. The voice of the government is in a sense effective, 
and the position of Japan is theoretically secure; yet a 
great undermining process is going on. In a true self- 
determinism the persistent will of the people counts for 
more than the act of the government. Vox populi vox Dei is 
as true for the East as for the West. 

The Boycott Th e students are accusing leaders in 

their own government of being traitors and 

are demonstrating to the Japanese Government that unless 



56 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

Tsingtau aud all German rights in Shantung are returned 
to China, there can be no good will between the two people. 
The means taken in dealing with Japan have in the main 
been those of the boycott, made effective throughout the 
whole of China, but specially felt in the coast provinces. 
The methods are simple; students lecture in cities and towns, 
sometimes a Korean being found to tell of the sufferings of 
his nation under the yoke of Japan, and when a feeling 
of intense bitterness has been evoked against the Island 
Empire, the crowd is called upon neither to buy from 
nor sell to the Japanese. Japanese goods already in 
hand are in some cases allowed to be sold, but merchants 
may not add to their stock. In Canton, where it was 
maintained that some of the big department stores made 
purchases of Japanese goods after the boycott was declared, 
the stores themselves have been boycotted and for weeks 
together scarcely a customer has entered their doors. 
Demands of ^ n Dealing with their own government, 

the Students action has -been more aggressive. Opinion 
has been organized by the students in general, 
but perhaps more particularly by those connected with the 
Government University in Peking; and by the Shanghai 
Students Union, which represents some twenty thousand 
students, men and women, drawn from over eighty schools 
and colleges. Their demands are 

(1) Purification of the government system with 

greater honesty and loyalty on the part of 
officials. 

(2) The return of Tsingtau and all German rights 

in Shantung to China. 

(3) The cancellation of the tweuly-oue demands that 

Japan made during the war. 

(4) That freedom of speech and of the press shall be 

preserved as an inalienable right of the 
citizens of the republic. 

In Peking the students of the Govern- 

Overthrow of men t University have sought to disconnect 
Pro-Japanese, . ,, 

Officials themselves with the actions of the govern 

ment, and have taken the lead in a patriotic 



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58 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

at present actually fighting, have large armies in the field, 
living on the people, and reducing the country to extreme 
poverty. The once virile and prosperous people of central 
Hunan have suffered more than others. Stories of cruelty, 
poverty, and destitution, coming from Changsha, are heart 
rending. Theoretically, the South stands for a purer and 
more logical reform than the North, in practice there is 
very little to choose between the two parties, force being the 
great desideratum. The tuchun, or military governor, in 
almost every province overshadows, and practically su 
persedes the civil governor. These military governors 
resemble the feudal barons of the Middle Ages. They 
extort revenue to support their armies, and their armies 
tyrannize over the people. 

O ium and With the weakness of the civil governors 

Morphia ^ n nuiny provinces, poppy culture, the opium 

trade, and opium smoking are again rife. 
A still worse element comes in, largely it is to be feared 
owing to Japanese influence, in the matter of morphia, 
which is being widely sold, and given to all who apply for 
it at a minimum charge in hypodermic injections. 

A Christian Yet, even in the midst of this militarism, 

General elements making for national regeneration 

are found in at least one district. While 
central Hunan has suffered so terribly, the northwestern 
section of this same province is under the charge of a 
brigade led by General Feng Yu-hsiang.* This general has 
ideals not unlike those of Oliver Cromwell. Of the 
nine thousand soldiers under him, over one thousand 
have been baptized, and all are more or less under 
Christian instruction. No drinking, no bad language, 
no gambling, is allowed. One of the colonels was found 
going to a house of ill fame, and the general thrashed 
him. The greatest cleanliness is maintained throughout 
each camp connected with this brigade. Officers and 
men are kept constantly practicing athletic exercises. 



* See also Chapter XXVIII, pages 281-6. 



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60 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

to the more intelligent people, pressing on all alike the fact 
that only in thoroughgoing Christianity has China any hope 
of salvation. It is strengthened by the number of out 
standing leaders who are Christians: C. T. Wang, one of 
the peace representatives in Paris and a man universally 
respected; Chang Po-ling, the great educational leader; 
David Yui and Dr. C. Y. Cheng, eloquent speakers and 
Christian patriots these are men known by name through 
out the world. Many others of similar spirit are known 
locally as trusted leaders. 

T,, D , There is at length coining into use a 

1 ne raonetic . ,. . , ,, -i // i, 

Alphabet phonetic script. The extreme difficulty ot 

the Chinese character, and the comparatively 
few, even of the Chinese, who cau read it intelligently, has 
for decades made it clear that some simpler form of writing 
is needed. Romauization was for long regarded hopefully, 
but with the exception of dialect areas like Swatow and 
Amoy it has not been a success. Attempts at a reform of 
writing, at once phonetic and somewhat similar to the 
ordinary Chinese character, have proved much more 
satisfactory, and now a script has been devised known as 
the " Chu i/in Isz mu" which seems to meet the need of the 
nation as a whole, and more particularly that great 
preponderance of the nation that uses some form of 
Mandarin speech. The government and the Christian 
forces have joined hands to secure the general adoption of 
this script. The government has prestige and comparative 
wealth, the missionaries and leading Chinese Christians 
have teaching power and enthusiasm. It seems fairly 
certain that this simplified form of writing will be generally 
adopted, and used side by side with the more elaborate 
script, which has been known in China for so many mil 
lenniums. Christian books have been issued in this new 
script, Gospels are being translated into it, and before 
long it is hoped that the whole of the New Testament will 
be available in this form. One of the greatest obstacles that 
Christianity had to face in the past has been that so great a 
proportion of the population was illiterate; with this 
simplified writing there is good hope of the people at large 



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62 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

union are taking place. In Canton, Nanking, Tientsin, and 
other centers, missions are considering the possibility of 
pooling their forces and uniting for the work of the cities 
as a whole. The missionary societies, standing behind 
their churches, are drawing much closer together in fellow 
ship. The China Continuation Committee, which aims at 
securing fellowship between all the missions, and coordina 
tion of all the forces making for the Christianization of 
China, has drafted a statement of comity, and, in the main, 
this has been adopted by nearly all the missions working in 
China to-day. 

Chinese Home Chinese Christians, without regard to 

Missions denominational affiliation, have united to 

commence organized missionary work in their 
own land. As a first step, a mission party, of which 
Rev. Ding Li-mei is a prominent member, has gone to 
Yunnan and is now making a preliminary survey with a 
view to the establishment of a strong Chinese Christian 
mission. The province is sparsely occupied by Christian 
forces, and those on the field have most heartily welcomed 
these experienced and devoted men and women, who are 
seeking to make Christ known to their fellow countrymen 
in this IHtle-known province. There is reason to hope that 
because this is a Chinese mission it will make a strong 
appeal to the Chinese to whom it goes. There is already 
evidence that the effort to man and equip such a mission is 
drawing out and strengthening the best powers of the 
Church in many parts of China. 

To make visible the unity of purpose that 

Mission .. i i j~ti i f i 

Headquarters exists among all the Christian forces to-day, 
and to prepare for yet closer organization, 
it is proposed to erect in Shanghai a missions building. 
Land has been secured in a central place and the erection 
will co umence as soon as adequate funds can be received. 
In this building it will be possible for all missions and all 
societies connected with the missionary movement to have 
their headquarters. The missions building will thus 
become a national headquarters for the whole Christian 
movement in China. 



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64 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

permeating of every class, in the whole of China, with 
Christian thought and ideals ; and the effective preaching 
of the gospel of the grace of God to the whole of the people 
of China. 

A few miles from Peking, at the foot of the Western 
Hills, is Wofossu. In the central shrine, surrounded by 
attendant spirits, is a great, recumbent, bronze image 
the Sleeping Buddha. The surrounding grounds are ex 
tensive and beautiful; they contain many buildings. Ex- 
.cept for the central shrine, nearly the whole of this property 
has been secured by the Young Men s Christian Association 
and made suitable for conferences and retreats. For some 
months during each year Chinese leaders and their foreign 
friends gather here; or Chinese boys and girls come away 
from the city to the cool, fresh country. Buddha sleeps 
and the whole atmosphere thrills with Christian vitality. 
The few monks that remain drone out their liturgies and 
the Christian forces mobilize for a new advance. These 
things are a parable. The old religions of China are sleep 
ing, perhaps dying. Christianity was never more active in 
the land. Because the people of -China need a great faith 
to lift them above the perplexities and materialism of this 
present time, they are more and more being drawn to the 
living Christ. 



CMAPTt* VI 
or IMTMASIS is 



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66 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

Chuna Hua Sheng Rung Hai, representing the various 
Anglican bodies, and the movement toward a similar union 
of Presbyterian units, since so broadened as to include 
British and American Congregationalists, with English 
Baptists and Wesleyans seriously interested, and the 
proposal that a general invitation be extended to any 
society which may care to confer regarding admission. 
The fact that this movement has been advocated chiefly 
by missionaries of mature experience and conservative 
principles makes it immensely more significant. Local 
unions in large centers, such as Hangchow, Nanking, and 
Tientsin, indicate a desire to secure the practical benefits 
of working as though there were a single organization while 
keeping intact the respective ecclesiastical relationships of 
the local churches. In Peking the suggestion that the 
American Board, London Mission, and Presbyterian 
churches anticipate their national union by effecting a 
thoroughgoing one at once in their own city, is another 
outbreaking of the same desire. Bnt the most advanced 
organism in which the new spirit has revealed itself is 
probably in Canton and South Kwangtung. In educational 
work, the growth of the union universities, the increasing 
emphasis on the nine district educational associations 
heading up in the one China Christian Educational 
Association with its newly formulated Five- Year Program, 
the fact that even theological education is in its more advanced 
courses done with the exception of two communions 
almost wholly in union institutions, are among the more 
striking evidences of the same current. The newly 
organized and vigorously promoted China Christian 
Literature Council, aiming to coordinate all literary work, 
and the attempts to merge the various publishing interests, 
are indicative of the same spirit working in another field. 
What are the causes for this quite generally approved 
new emphasis on some form of unified effort? The desire 
of practically all Chinese Christians who think for 
themselves has undoubtedly had large influence, though it 
will have to be reckoned with still more as the Chinese 
Church comes into its own. The intimacies of the mission 
field and the nature of its tasks give new orientation to 



68 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

the motives for these often misunderstood by, the Chinese 
affected, it is becoming a meeting for inspiration, the 
discussion of broacl principles, and the handling chiefly of 
such business as concerns its relation with the home society 
or board, its former work being largely done by the 
ecclesiastical body in which Chinese and missionaries sit 
together. The Committee on Mission Administration of 
the China Continuation Committee is making a special 
study of the relation of the mission to the Chinese Church, 
and its report next spring will doubtless help to clarify as 
well as carry forward one of the most important changes of 
emphasis now in process. 

The next step will be attempted by Chinese Christians 
to initiate and conduct advance movements of their own. 
There is near Chinwangtao, just within the Great Wall, a 
coal mine of modern type and its private narrow-guage 
railway, owned and operated entirely by Chinese, its 
machinery and most of its rolling stock constructed in 
China, with a capital of nearly three quarters of a million 
dollars and an output of two hundred tons a day, soon to be 
doubled. The capable young engineer in charge described 
all this to the writer with healthy pride. Nothing could 
be tiner than the spirit in which the promoters of the 
Yunnan Home Mission Society have planned this fledgling 
enterprise of Chinese Christianity. They have wanted it 
supported by Chinese funds, directed by Chinese brains, 
the fruition of Chinese piety. The members of the mission 
have endured discomforts and hardships greater even than 
many pioneering foreigners. Yet they have throughout 
welcomed the advice of missionaries and rejoiced in their 
sympathetic approval. This hearty interest, free from 
interference on the part of the missionary body, is in its 
turn an augury full of promise for similar efforts in the 
eventful future. 

The reaction on Chinese Christianity on the Inter- 
church World Movement of North America can at this 
writing be only conjectural. But the very fact that its 
organizers are giving so much thought to the projection 
of its great objectives out to the churches of the mission 
fields is itself significant. And the expectation of large 



70 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

the gospel, or were the spontaneous, outworkings of 
Christian life, rather than the results of a deliberately 
social program. On the other hand, it should be pointed 
out at once and for all that the new emphasis is merely on 
the application of our faith, and indicates no change of 
attitude toward its eternal realities. There may be a few 
new missionaries who have a gospel of social uplift and 
nothing more. But these are not typical, and the great 
basal truths are held as firmly, belief in the need and power 
of divine life in the human soul remains as vital, as in the 
earlier stages. It is only a question as to the direction in 
which the new dynamic should be applied, the forms 
in which the new spiritual life can most truly- function. 
And to any thoughtful observer there can be no doubt that 
the trend among China missionaries is toward the social 
meaning of the Christian message. At least three phases 
of this tendency may be noted : 

(a) The Church and (he Community. The active 
participation of Christian leaders in anti-opium, anti-liquor, 
morphia investigation, exposure of social vice, and similar 
reforms, is conspicuous, though more often such movements 
owe their origin to them. It is significant that the 
China Continuation Committee is instituting a Moral 
Welfare Committee to coordinate and give expert 
assistance to efforts of this type. In more positive 
directions, playgrounds, hygienic lectures, a clean and 
courageous newspaper, and other institutional features 
are being put into effect. Even village chapels often have 
a reading room. The intention, to Christianize the spring 
festival, Ching-Ming, with the spirit of Easter, to establish 
a Chinese and more Christlike Christmas, to baptize the 
New Year and other holidays, and to infuse family and 
social customs with Christian ideals, thus preserving while 
purifying them, are all phases of the attempt to socialize 
the Christian movement. 

(6) The Church and Political Salvation. Events 
affecting China s national integrity have been moving 
rapidly. Her disruption or destruction is no longer a 
speculative or alarmist fear. The Chinese are keenly 
conscious of the danger, and are becoming either selfishly 



72 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

In all these social applications of the gospel, and others 
which will readily suggest themselves to the reader, the 
missionary movement is not only true to New Testament 
standards but is functioning in a field which the pragmatic 
Chinese mind is peculiarly able to evaluate. 

New missionaries coming out fresh from 

4. Keligious , . . , : r . , ,,. 

Education the emphasis now given this m the West, 

reenforced by the disheartening experience 
of older missionaries who have learned that converts 
who made progress as inquirers have often retrograded 
as church members, have led to systematic attention to 
this supremely important feature of our task. This is seen 
in the activities of the China Sunday /School Union, the 
courses in summer institutes, the creation of such a 
department in arts and theological colleges, the increased 
emphasis on teacher training, etc. 

The comprehensive investigations of the 
Board f Missionary Preparation at the home 
Schools bases, and the admirably directed language 

schools in Nanking, Peking, etc., indicate a 
renewed attention to the training of new missionaries. 
But it is a question whether, despite these aids, 
there is sufficient, resistance to the complex of tasks 
and the alluring opportunities which prevent that 
acquaintance with the language, literature, and life of the 
people, without which no worker can attain to the fullest 
measure of achievement. 

, ,,. .. Space will permit the briefest mention 

6. Vocational f, , , 

Education t only one other change or emphasis, 

that of vocational courses, especially in higher 
education. The rapid growth of the College of Agriculture 
and Forestry in the University of Nanking, and the 
widespread favorable attention this has received abroad 
and in China, including some of the highest Chinese officials, 
is a demonstration. Other signs are not lacking that 
missionary education will become more highly vocatiomtlized, 
following an impulse from the West, and meeting the desires 
of the Chinese. 



CHAPTER VII 

COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN WORK 
Edward James 

What s done we partly may compute, 
But know not what s resisted. " 



Increasing ^ e purpose here is to outline as well as 

Cooperation we ma y "what s done" in cooperative 
Christian work in some places in China; but 
the facts cannot be stated nor their meaning understood 
without revealing something of " what s resisted." 
Cooperation in Christian work in China is increasing by 
leaps and bounds; but any report on, or discussion of, this 
matter conveying the impression that we are on the eve of a 
rapid diminution of distinctly denominational activities 
would be unworthy oC your confidence. Not trusting to his 
own knowledge or judgment, the writer of this paper 
prepared and widely distributed a questionnaire calculated 
to discover facts and fancies what we are doing, and 
what we are hoping to do. What follows is largely derived 
from and determined by these many contributors. 
An Era of Action Following an age of discussion, we 
are now in an era of action, and action 
proves more efficient than discussion for purposes of 
discovery. Talk and then try, seems to be a human 
necessity. Probably many communities having opportunities 
for cooperative work, "but not yet practicing it, would do 
well to seek favorable occasion to begin, or to continue, the 
absolutely necessary period of discussion the germ 
requires suitable period and conditions of incubation. 
This subject appeals so strongly to imagination and emotion 
that we have all the more need to watch against the 
temptation to hyperbole. Let us look facts squarely in 
the face until we discern clearly their essential features; for 
excessive optimism was ever predisposed to grasshopper 
logic ; and often the wish is father to the thought. 



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76 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

What seems possible now is that Baptists shall make 
their spiritual contribution as one,, not as seven; 
likewise Adventists, Congregationalists, etc., clear down 
the alphabet to Quaker and Zionists. Many writers 
strongly deplore any agitation based upon a reversal of 
history; and a considerable number of groups is demanded. 
A union that includes, not excludes, is the only one that 
will receive any consideration at all. This is a most 
important fingerpost. 

4 Church 4 * Federation of different bodies having 

Federations similar ecclesiastical polity; e.g., the rap 
prochement of Presbyterians, London Mission, 
and American Board. This is the largest movement of 
this character that we have heard of in China, and includes 
more than one third of the Chinese Church membership. 
Probably some other groupings can be effected; some are 
now fa embryo. It is widely believed that we could all 
unite into four or five groups so as to conserve all the 
practical advantages without at the same time becoming 
fluid and chaotic." The problems presentedin all these cases 
are dissimilar one to another. It must be noted, however, 
that among those concerned in these movements there are 
still those individual workers who sincerely believe that 
smaller organizations can do more vigorous work and 
produce better direct results for immediate Christianization 
of China. 

II. Local Cooperative Efforts 

II. In smaller areas, there are efforts at local 
cooperation among the missions working in any given 
center. Here we have only to study local factors, of which 
one of the chief is the degree of fraternization possible 
among the missionaries, but this is by no means the only 
problem. 

Questions that ^ n t ^ 1 ls conne ction several questions, 

Arise issues, or problems at once arise. We have to 

discriminate between what can be done more 
economically together, and what is better done separately. 
Lumping things together, some say, may be fatal to success. 












* * ft* 



78 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

fellowship and mutual esteem among the several missions; 
2. Months of meetings, committees, plans; revisions. This 
all eventuated in a simple constitution. A council is 
constituted of representatives elected by their respective 
missions, in proportion to their numbers of missionaries, 
with an equal number of Chinese similarly chosen. The 
Chinese name, .-$5, it -f-, indicates the cooperative nature of 
the combination. A dozen committees are appointed to 
cultivate as many lines of cooperative activity ; and all head 
up in an executive secretary, with a central office and office 
staff. The purpose is to cooperate and coordinate so as to 
do unitedly some things that probably cannot be done by 
any singly. A list of the committees will be suggestive: 
survey, publicity, finance, Sunday schools, evangelism, 
personal work, social service, colportage, devotional, 
extension, student work, stewardship. The constitution 
distinctly denies any intention of imposing any restrictions 
upon the individuality or independence of any denomination. 

-,, o to t. Some of the conditions do not obtain in 
The Basis oi buch ...... . . .. , -, 

Cooperation Nanking which usually form tne basis of the 
call for comity among the churches in any 
given locality in America. There is no need to eliminate 
anything; we need more of everything, but to try to 
coordinate our too slender resources to meet unprecedented 
demands and opportunities, to make every worker and every 
bit of plant worth a little more if possible. The Council 
has not the slightest mandatory authority. What is done 
by any one or every one is quite optional. The organization 
is built upon mutual good will aoid common interest; nor is 
it intended to ask more than that for its continuance. 
But it will not on this account be less effective for the 
interests and purposes defined and accepted by these seven 
missions. 

New Work Among the new enterprises undertaken 

Made Possible are an exhaustive survey of all Christian, 
educational, or other philanthropic work 
being done in the city. This will be completed in 
cooperation with the China Continuation Committee and the 
Inter-church World Survey Committee. Publication of 



80 CHURCHES AND MISSIONS 

recognize one another by joining hands in common work 
without affecting church loyalties and personal convictions 
and preferences. Such splendid work is carried on with 
no essential relationship to organic union. 

Conclusions It is not the purpose of this chapter to 

"promote" anything but intelligence and 
good wil] ; but two or three things convincingly emerge 
from this inquiry. 1. One truth is made plain every 
where, and must be emphasized, both on account of those 
who timidJy fear cooperation, and on account of those 
who inconsiderately press too hard on union, viz. that a 
tremendous amount of very effective and satisfactory 
cooperation is possible without prejudice to denominational 
identity, and involving uo disloyalty to one s cherished 
convictions. This is a very happy feature, and should be 
generally known. 2. As to union that gives up 
denominational identity, very little is attempted, and still 
less accomplished. There is some plea for general scrambling 
of the eggs, but not much. There is much positive 
disapproval; and the less said about union the better it 
will be for the spirit of fraternity and for practical 
cooperation. The prevailing sentiment is well summed 
up in the declaration of one of the most widely known, 
honored, and revered of God s servants in China 
"Cooperation? Heartily, Yes ! Organic union? Decidedly, 
No!" 

Coordination ^ w * coordinate the really necessary 

Urged * contribution of each and all is a question 

engaging the thought of many people; and it 
were only ostrich folly to suppose that we can be one ! 
without coming squarely up against this. Cooperation with 
liberty and independence, is the slogan. Smaller groups 
act more vigorously, promptly, and efficient]}- than larger 
groups for many kinds of work. 

What afe This would not fairly represent many 

the Aims 6 ? contributors did we not add a brief closing 

paragraph. We have to ask, What is the 
question involved in the whole movement, or in any given 
part? 1. Is it a question of husbanding resources of men 



*f 



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PART III 

EVANGELISM 

CHAPTER VIII 

RECENT ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE 
RELIGIONS. 

Harrison K. Wright 

The adequate treatment of this topic 

Sources or ... r . 

Information requires the cooperation of numerous ob 
servers living at the various centers of 
religious thought and activity in the nation. An attempt 
has been made to obtain this, and while the success achieved 
was not as great as was desired, enougli material has been 
furnished to make a useful study possible, and thanks are 
due to the nineteen correspondents who have written the 
results of their observations. It may be as well to state in 
advance that from four provinces (Anhwei, Kwangsi, 
Kweichow, and Yunnan) no information at all has been 
received, while from seven others there is only meager news. 
It is hoped that another year the gaps may be filled, and in 
the meantime there is enough at hand to be food for 
thought. 

As is well known, it is a rare thing to find a Chinese 
who adheres to one religion exclusively ; and it is equally 
true that many of the religions intermingle in their activi 
ties. For that reason the various subdivisions of our subject 
will be found to overlap at some points; but it is better to 
divide the study topically than geographically, for whatever 
is lost in clearness will be restored as breadth of grasp: 

Animistic Superstition and Idolatry 

The religion of the Chinese, as believed 
Revival of , , . , , . ... 

Idolatry an( ^ practiced by the masses, is primitive, 

animislic, and local. The weighty volumes of 



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84 EVANGELISM 

temporary hospitals, usually in temples, which did yeoman 
service in staying the plague, and will help to cause con 
fidence in the western treatment of "inside " diseases. At 
one place the plague was so severe that the image of Wang 
Yang-ming* (who was a native of this region) was carried 
in the procession (it had never before been taken from its 
temple) ; the sturdy Confucianist surely turned over in his 
grave at that. At Amoy the same thing occurred; " I never 
during ten years heard or saw so many processions in the 
course of a fortnight." Kiangsi sends a similar report, as 
do Canton, and Hunan; Hupeh reports the processions as 
common, but not unusual in numbers, and display. 

Mixed Motives But ^ niust be repeated that in all this 

widespread phenomenon, though the form 
was religious, the amount of religion displayed was small. 
In one country town where the schoolmaster (not a 
Christian) was beaten and driven out, the cause was at first 
reported to be his refusal to take part in the anti-cholera 
fast that had been proclaimed; but investigation showed 
that the real reason was that the people supposed he had 
taken their names to report to the officials, and also that the 
heads of other schools were jealous of him. There is no 
harder task than to find the amount of real religion that 
underlies outward religious observances, whether in the West 
or the East. 

Buddhism, Taoism, and the Sects 

The story of the facts regarding these 
Reports of ,. . , ,/ . *.t 

Revivals religious bodies varies greatly ; in some parts 

they appear to be dead or dying; in others 
there are signs of revival. Only Avhere the latter is the case 
is it worth while to record the facts. If a province is 
omitted from our account, it means that the report from 
that province, if any, speaks of decaying temples, and a 
lifeless religion. Honan reports two large Buddhist temples 
(Kaifeng and Kweiteh), where renovation and rebuilding 



* Wang Yang-ming was the latest Confucian philosopher (1472- 
1511). 



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86 EVANGELISM 

tual movement rather than a truly religious one. This is 
confirmed by the report from Hangchow. Mr. Barnett; 
writes: " There is a state of mind among the educated men 
which makes them ripe for some sort of religio-philosophic 
revival. They are dissatisfied with materialism and are 
seeking a spiritual interpretation of the universe, . . . 
thought of only in the remotest way in connection with the 
religious practices of Buddhism and Taoism. What they 
are seeking again is thought of too little in relation to life. 
It is more of a philosophic than a religious revival; and 
they turn to Buddhism because the deepest and best 
philosophy in the Chinese language is in the literature of 
Buddhism." All this does not affect the masses, who 
remain untouched by any Buddhistic revival. This general 
statement is supported by instances which make most 
interesting reading, though space will not permit to quote 
them at length. 
T Lectures on Buddhism have become more 

Lectures on .. , ., 

Buddhism frequent than formerly; a summer institute 

for the study of Buddhist philosophy has 
been held; Buddhist literature is being sold iu great 
quantities, one newspaper office being a depot for this 
dealing with the most etherial sort of philosophic and 
spiritual literature. Lectures on Buddhism and Christi 
anity by Mr. Tsang Zwen-yin of the Christian Literature 
Society, though outrageously long, were listened to with 
rapt attention, and were followed by interested discussions. 
Mr. Tsang asserts that all China is more or less affected by 
this interest in spiritual themes. 

Spiritualism At some points this interest turns to 

spiritualism, in curious sympathy with 
existing movements of thought in Europe. Mr. Barnett 
says that he possesses a copy of the photograph of the soul 
of a Hangchow scholar recently drowned in the wreck of 
the Poochee, a fraud foisted on the family by Taoist priests, 
and accepted as authentic by many leading men of educa 
tion, lawyers, and teachers, in Hangchow. In this con 
nection it is interesting to note that a similar interest has 
been aroused in a quarter distant from Chekiang. The 
report from Kansu says : Especially among the scholar 



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Tk " : 



88 EVANGELISM 

Confucianism 

Under this heading, the only important news there is 
conies from Shansi. Elsewhere, the statement from Peking 
that "the effort made a few years ago to galvanize Con 
fucianism was a failure, and one hears very little, if any 
thing, about that now," is substantially echoed in several 
accounts. Confucianism does not seem to be at all active " 
(Honan). " Confucianism is either dead or sound asleep" 
(Chekiang). " The Confucianists have shown some zeal in 
preaching, but there has been little sustained effort; the 
leaders doubtless are even more agnostic than formerly" 
(Kiangsi). 

From Canton comes a detailed report of 
Revivllin the failure of the Conf ucianists to produce a 
Canton revival; a modern Confucianist society 

organized some years ago with large plans 
has failed to arouse enthusiasm and some of its funds have 
been misappropriated; a returned student carried on a 
vigorous propaganda, and a Confucian Y. M. C. A. was 
opened near the Christian Y. M. C. A., which has lately 
been turned into a moving-picture place; the leading 
Confucian temple in the city, the " Maau Shau Kuug," has 
been demolished by the authorities to make way for street 
improvements truly a remarkable occurrence and not 
paralleled elsewhere, so far as our reports go. 

Hunan Hunan reports Confucianism "quiescent," 

and a falling off in pilgrimages to the sacred 
mountain, Nan Yob. (I do not know whether these pilgrims 
are Buddhists, but class them as Confucianists, since the 
locality is not one of the four Buddhist sacred mountains, 
but is historically at least, connected with animistic and 
Confucian beliefs.) 

Hupeh From Hupeh: "Confucianism seems to 

be about as dead as it ever has been. . . . One 
of the evidences of the revival which started a few years ago 
and which seems now to have died down, is the presence at 
some of the street corners of little receptacles marked 
Chin Ilsi Tsz Tsz (ife It ^ ^ft), and then under these a few 
smaller characters indicating that the receptacle was put 
iuto place by the Society for the Revival of Confucianism." 







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90 EVANGELISM 

to the platform. It is now a common sight in many towns 
and villages to 6nd the main village temple opened on the 
Sabbath for this public lecture, tables and forms arranged 
for the audience, and the town crier sent around to 
announce the meeting and call in the people. Though one 
hesitates to write of the result of this attempted Confucian 
revival for fear he may not have a proper perspective, or 
may write with a bias, I cannot forbear saying that there 
are not wanting signs that even the most enthusiastic 
supporters of the Association are beginning to feel some 
doubt as to its effectiveness in moral regeneration. Shansi 
has greatly improved in every way within the last two 
years, but the improvement has rather been due to the 
vigorous political reforms of Governor Yen than to the ex 
hortations of the moralists. The real leader of the Heart 
Cleansing Association recently made the public statement 
that he believed Christianity to be the true religion. One 
cannot be too sure of the background for the statement, but 
we have reason to feel that apprehension for the moral safety 
of the student classes has had something to do with it." 

. al o{ One of Governor Yen s most notable 

Citizenship ac ^ s nas been the publication of a Manual of 
Citizenship. An analysis and study of this 
book has been prepared for the Chinese Recorder, and will 
appear sometime during the autumn of 1919, under the 
title, What the People Ought to Know." It will not 
therefore be needful to make a lengthy reference to the book. 
It appeared in a first edition of two million seven hundred 
and fifty thousand copies, which were distributed gratis to 
the people of the province. Written in clear Mandarin, it 
is a kind of modern Sacred Edict, emphasizing morals, 
popular education, economic reform in a valuable way, but 
with enough emphasis on the cult of militarism to make one 
suspect a strong Japanese influence. 

For Christians, the most significant 

Keierences ,. . ., ,. , , ( t mi rnl -,7, ,, 

to God section is the one entitled The Three I 1 ears. 

Written for the people they make a significant 
contrast to the three things which Confucius says the 
superior man is to fear, which are, the ordinances of Heaven, 



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92 EVANGELISM 

Tolerance of Christianity 

, . Most encouraging reports have been 

Confucian received on this topic. In Shansi, as has been 

Pulpits noted, Christians are invited to occupy Con 

fucian pulpits," and the exhortations to 
good living and the cultivation of high ideals help toward 
freedom and tolerance in reJigion. Christians certainly 
enjoy more tolerance on the part of both people and gentry 
than ever before." One section of Governor Yen s book is 
devoted to the subject, and his treatment is in. marked 
contrast, to the opposition to Buddhists, Taoists, and 
Christians that appears in the Sacred Edict. 

The Situation ^ n Chekiang, an intelligent appreciation 

in Chekiang f the power of Christianity is manifest; 
" the attitude of educated men is such that 
they would welcome a sound and vital Christian apologetic 
and living presentation of the spiritual realities of Chris 
tianity and of Christian experience." "The superficial 
popularity which Christianity enjoyed for several years 
after the Revolution has waned, but on the other hard 
there has been a considerable increase in the number of 
those who are intelligently and earnestly interested in 
Christianity. People . . . are willing to be shown the 
secret of its power. That this power is not entirely due 
to the ethics of Christianity is generally realized; in 
fact, with many educated men it. is difficult to show 
wherein Christianity has a great deal that is distinctive 
in the way of moral ideals to give China. There is a 
realization too that the power of Christianity is not due 
entirely or primarily to its organization or its observances. 
Too many efforts have been made by non-Christian 
organizations to imitate the organization of the Church and 
its auxiliaries which have resulted in movements five 
minutes zealous and then lifeless." 

In Kiangsi there has been a recrudescence 
Persecution of f persecut [ OI1 of Christians for refusal to 

Christians in f ., . , , J ,. ... j . 

Kiangsi contribute to idolatrous festivities and rites, 

and the gentry and officials have done much 

to back up the persecutors. " We have had more of this in 




* - 









94 EVANGELISM 

great opponent and the leaders of the system in this city 
speak of building a church, and having regular services." 

A Wide-Open Speaking of China generally it is true 

Door even in the districts where Buddhism or 

Confucianism are strong, the door is open, 
and the opportunity is conditioned only by worldly prosper 
ity and religious indifference. While preparing this article, 
word has reached me that the Taoyin of Ningpo, which is a 
strong Confucian (as well as Buddhist) center, has ap 
pointed among his assistants at the autumn sacrifices the 
head of the official normal school, and the head of the 
official middle school. What would happen if one of these 
men were a Christian, as was the case not long ago ? Really 
thoroughgoing religious tolerance does not yet exist; but 
this may be a good thing, for too rapid progress in religious 
tolerance would indicate a coming reaction and disaster. 

Conclusion 

This study of a very imperfect cross section of the 
religious life of China during the past year ought to serve at 
least two good purposes. It ought to point the way toward 
more complete, and so more useful, studies of the subject 
in future years; and it ought to help us to understand more 
about the size and the nature of the task of Christian 
missions. More than that it is a true call to prayer. 
Mission problems are infinitely varied, but the fundamental 
problem of all is to reach the Chinese on the religious side. 
With the same hearts and minds with which they have 
believed in vain, they are to believe in the Eternal Son of 
God; and where they are indifferent and materialistic, the 
reasons why and the quality of the indifference are facts 
that the wise missionary will ponder carefully, and he will 
not confine his thought or his prayer to the problems of his 
own district. It ought to be a little more possible for us to 
help each other in prayer after this study, and it has been 
undertaken with the hope that both labor and prayer might 
be more intelligent. 



CHAP rex ix 
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96 EVANGELISM 

T~ T,. . ,. In March last a small commission 

Inerirst Mis- . ,. ,, , ,, .. . 

sfonary Party consisting of seven members, three Chinese 
ordained men, three Chinese ladies, and one 
American lady missionary, left Shanghai. One of the three 
ordained men was the Rev. Ding Li-mei, for a number of 
years the traveling secretary of the Student Volunteer 
Movement, a man of prayer, sometimes called the Chinese 
Moody. He was accompanied by his wife, formerly a 
kindergarten teacher connected with the Methodist Church 
in Kiukiang. The Rev. Li Yun-sheng, Presiding Elder of 
the Methodist Church in Chinkiang, is a man yet very young 
in spirits though well advanced in age. He is bright and 
is full of humor and has been an experienced worker for 
many years. Rev. Sang Chien-tang, pastor of the Southern 
Presbyterian Church, Hangchow, is a man of good business 
ability and ripe Christian experience. The women are Miss 
Li Ching-chien, a member of the Southern Presbyterian 
Mission, Hangchow, teacher in the Bible Teacher Training 
School in Nanking, and one who knows her Bible well ; 
Miss Chen Yu-liug, a member of the American Board 
Mission in Peking, a graduate from the North China Union 
Women s College, formerly secretary of the Women s 
Temperance Society of China. She felt a special call from 
above that she should give her entire time to evangelistic 
work. In order to equip herself with a deeper knowledge 
of the Word of God, she went to the Bible Teachers Train 
ing School in Nanking for training. Upon the urgent 
request of the committee in charge, Mrs. F. D. Gamewell 
accompanied the party. It was felt that her smiling face 
and cheering word would help this little band on many an 
occasion. 

" This little party of missionaries left 
Reception in Shanghai on March 21, full of rejoicing 

Hongkong and . ,, ., ,,. 

Canton an( ^ expectation. While 011 their way to 

Hongkong they held religious services on 
board the ship and sought opportunity of speaking to the 
crew and servants on board the steamer about Christ. In 
Hongkong they received a royal welcome from churches 
in that place. Miss F. C. Wu, a most enthusiastic worker 
for the movement and one of the original seven members of 



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98 EVANGELISM 

the members of the mission to preach to them. After 
school hours the ladies make a special point to visit the 
homes of their pupils in order to get access to the non- 
Christian families. Such visits are proving to be an 
effective means of reaching the homes of the people. 

" While the ladies have been engaged in 
Looking for a thig form of Christian activity, the men of the 
Permanent . . , , j j*** 

Yi & \d commission have scattered m different parts 

of the province. Mr. Ding Li-mei has made 
an extensive trip to the extreme west, as far as Tengyueh, 
a journey requiring twenty-eight days- each way. He was 
accompanied on a part of the trip by Mrs. Morgan, of Tsu- 
yung, and later by a colporteur of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, who knows the country well. Reports which 
have reached the committee in Shanghai are very grati 
fying. Mr. Ding has made the best possible use of this long 
trip by making careful observations and studies of the 
places and by doing actual evangelistic work among both the 
Christians and non-Christians. 

"Mr. Sang has visited the southern part of the province 
and made a thorough survey of the city of Ku Chiu, a large 
prospering district with the natural wealth of tin mines. 
The people are economically relatively well off, though a 
good many of them are addicted to the opium habit. 

" Mr. Li went to the northern part of the province and 
over the border into Szechwan, where he visited a number 
of cities. At Huilihsien he met a group of Christians who 
are without a pastor. They received him with great 
enthusiasm and begged him to stay and become their 
permanent pastor. After three or four months devoted to 
a study of the field, the men returned to the capital. 

T . "The interest of the Christians in the 

Interest in the , . -,., . - 

Movement movement is steadily growing. From the 

beginning the news of this missionary move 
ment was received with great enthusiasm. Many have made 
it a special point to remember this work in their prayers. 
Some have contributed special articles in the Christian 
periodicals to promote a missionary spirit amongst the 
churches and church members. Some have made public 






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***>fy li to 
C 













100 



EVANGELISM 



"(3-). It is a movement in which women play a very 
conspicuous part. It was originated by a few Chinese and 
missionary ladies. 

"(4). It is a cooperative movement. While it is a 
Chinese movement, it has from the beginning sought the 
cooperation of missionaries and has an advisory committee 
composed entirely of missionaries. Except for the salary 
of one lady, and part of one of the men, the commission is 
being supported by the different organizations with which 
its members have been connected. The committee is 
responsible for their traveling and other expenses." 

2. The Missionary "Work of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui 
(Anglican Churches), 

Founding of the ^ e ^ HINA MISSION YEAR BOOK for 1916 
Mission contained an account of the founding of this 

society in 1912. At that time the eleven 
dioceses of the Anglican communion in China were 
organized and became a Chinese church. 

T . . | The following account of its work is 

RepoVt culled from the First Triennial Report of the 

Board of Missions of the General Synod : 

" At the first General Synod of the Chung Hua Sheug 
Kung Hui it w r as laid down as a fundamental principle that 
the organized Church should, in its corporate capacity, 
undertake the work of propagating the gospel, and a 
committee was formed, under the chairmanship of Bishop 
Banister (Kwangsi and Hunan) to draft a canon on 
missions, and to take preliminary measures for organizing 
mission work. 

" Canon III, Of the Board of Missions/ was passed at 
the Synod s next meeting in 1915, and at the same meeting 
it was resolved that, unless there should appear to be any 
unforeseen objection, the first sphere of mission work should 
be in the province of Shensi. It was further resolved that 
work should be begun as soon as possible. Bishop Graves 
(Shanghai) was elected as president, the Rev. S. C. Huang 
(Hankow) as general secretary, and Mr. S. C. Lin (North 
China) as treasurer. Bishop Norris (North China) asked 



*. > 



** fp 






4 i 






102 EVANGELISM 



th ^^ e s y s ^ em f diocesan apportionment 

has worked out successfully for the support 
of the work. Naturally, various questions 
have arisen in connection with it and some dioceses have 
found difficulty in recognizing its claims upon them in the 
face of other claims for what may be called diocesan mission 
work. But, nevertheless, there has been a loyal response 
and the percentage paid in the assessment has increased 
every year. In 1915, when only half the assessment was asked 
for, the amount received was $2,418.20, while in 1916, the 
only year whereof full statistics are at hand, the amount re 
ceived was $5,597.72, or 80% of the whole amount assessed. 
Thus the growth in receipts under this plan has kept pace 
with the growth in the work in Shensi, and there has been 
no embarrassment due to lack of funds for current expenses. 
A serious problem faced the new mission 
when the time came to purchase land. Early 



Emergency n 1917 it became evident that land must be 

purchased without delay if a desirable site 
was to be secured at anything like a reasonable price. An 
option was obtained on a tempting piece of land, but the 
Board of Missions had no funds with which to make the pur 
chase. The answer to this problem was found in the 
zeal and loyalty of a single diocese. Rev. S. C. Huang and 
Mr. Archie T. L. Tsen, of the. diocese of Hankow, were 
informed of the need of money for the purchase of land, 
and they got together a committee and proceeded to canvass 
for subscriptions. They met with such success that before 
long they were able to remit to the treasurer the sum v,f 
$1,000 with the promise of more to follow. The dioceses 
of Anking and North China each paid in $200, and these 
substantial gifts made it possible to purchase the desired 
land. Thursday, in October, 1917, the mission came into 
possession of some twenty mow of desirable land, secured 
at a total cost of about $1,300. 

It is noteworthy that this united effort 

Inlluence on _.. TT ,z. T _ . . . 

the Church f the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Mm is roAs- 

ing the loyalty and challenging the faith of 

the entire church. It is recognized as a strictly Chinese 

undertaking and special gifts are coming in from what may 



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104 EVANGELISM 

field of labor is the province of Heilungkiaiig and the two 
cities in which work is located are the capital, Tsitsihar, 
and Hailunfu. 

Staff There are two Chinese ordained pastors, 

three evangelists, two Bible women, two 
chapels and two outstations. The Christian community in 
the territory being worked now numbers two hundred and 
ninety-seven. These converts contribute annually some 
$865 toward the support of the work. In addition to 
this a budget of $1,271, local currency, or $1.000, Mex., 
is required. This is raised by an annual collection in 
nearly all the stations and outstations of the Presbyterian 
Church in Manchuria. 

Organization The organization is through a committee 

of the synod with secretary, treasurer, and 
other members. Usually, one collection annually is enough, 
but occasionally a supplementary collection has to be 
taken. An annual missionary meeting is held in Moukden 
during synod week, when addresses are given by the pastors 
who are working in the territory occupied by the home 
mission. A collection is taken at this time, when a number 
of missionaries are present. 

A printed leaflet with reports and contributions is 
issued annually. This, of course, contains an appeal, for 
it has been found that if the call is not pressed the offer 
ings fall off. 

Tent Work in ^ n Edition to this work done in Hei- 

Moukden City lungkiang, a tent is continually in use 
during the summer months for preaching to 
crowds of men and women who frequent a popular holiday 
park in Moukden. This work has been taken up voluntarily 
by the Chinese and is supported entirely by them. 

2. The Presbyterian Churches in South Fukien 

Some thirty years ago the Presbyterian churches in 
South Fukien organized a home missionary society, the 
directors of which are appointed annually by the synod, to 
which they also present an annual report. This society has 



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106 EVANGELISM 

and from these the reader may gather assuredly that every 
organized synod, conference, or convention of the Chinese 
church has some form of mission work through which 
it is pressing home the thought of the Christian conquest of 
the whole of China. 

HI. Women s Missionary Societies 

No statement of the missionary movement in the China 
Church would be complete without a synopsis of the work 
being done by the women s missionary auxiliaries. 

, A 1. The three dioceses of the Protestant 

The American ^ . . . ,, . 

Church Mission Episcopal Church in China each have a well- 
organized women s auxiliary. Every woman 
communciant automatically becomes a "member of the 
local auxiliary at the time of her confirmation. Each local 
auxiliary decides the amount of dues that the members are 
to pay. A part of the funds collected may be used 
for local work, and the rest is sent to the treasurer of 
the women s auxiliary of the diocese. A meeting of the 
diocesan auxiliary is held once a year and delegates are 
sent from all the local auxiliaries. This annual meeting 
makes appropriations and disburses the funds in the 
treasury. 

Last year the amount raised in the Kiangsu women s 
auxiliary was $913. This was used for diocesan mis 
sionary work and for the national mission in Shensi. The 
grants made by the women s auxiliaries have helped 
materially in the Shensi work. In 1916 the Kiangsu 
women s auxiliary gave to this work $225, while in 1917 
they gave $400. The women s auxiliary of the Anking 
diocese also made a grant of $100 in 1917. 

a .< r, .. . 2. The Women s Missionary Society 
Southern Baptist ,, r , i m L - 

Convention * tne Central China Baptist Mission was 
organized in 1914, and has had a steady 
growth. The type of organization is the same as that of 
the women of the Southern Baptist Convention in America. 
There are women s auxiliaries, young women s aux 
iliaries, girls auxiliaries, royal ambassadors (boys 
auxiliaries), and sunbeam bands. The childrens and 










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108 EVANGELISM 

developed among, the Christian women of the Chinese 
Republic. However incomplete may have been the sum 
maries of the work whether begun by men or by women, 
one thing is clear. The Chinese Church is alive to the 
question of missions and we may hope for great things from 
a church that is learning the meaning of the great com 
mission. 



CHATTER X 
HOW oourriAMTY 



EVANGELISM 



points the time had been so short that there were still no 
converts at the time we began work. At two of them, Liu- 
linchen in Shansi, and Yiilinfu in Shensi, there were 
perhaps a dozen believers. 



Discovering m issionaries at Fenchow had all been 

the Field killed in the Boxer outbreak in 1900, and the 

little group in the station were all young men 
who had arrived since 1907. They knew nothing of the 
nature of the field, and could learn little by inquiry, and 
less from maps and books explaining the conditions of the 
country, for those did not exist. Hence the first step was 
to discover what the character of the field was and what it 
contained. This meant a rather extended survey of the 
entire field. This was done in sections. The survey took 
into consideration three distinct lines of investigation : 
first, geographical, following Raymond Lull s saying that 
"next to the study of his Bible, the most important study 
for a missionary is that of geography" to discover the 
contour of the country, the mountain divides, the course of 
the rivers, the lines of intercommunication, the roads we 
chanced upon, where they came from, and led to, the 
location of the towns and villages and their relation to one 
another, which are the important market towns, which in 
China are the natural social and commercial foci of the 
people toward which the whole surrounding population 
tends to gather, and by the missionary occupation of which 
it is possible to reach the people of the entire surrounding 
district. The necessity for this part of the survey will be 
clear when I say that the largest number of cities, towns, 
and villages in this territory marked on any atlas or 
geography of China which we could find was twenty-eight, 
and by this survey we were able to locate something over 
seven thousand. 

The second object of the survey was to 
Resourced of determine something concerning the resources 
the Country ^ the country ; the location of mineral 
resources in which the section is rich, such as 
coal, iron, marble, salt, and soda, materials for the 
manufacture of both glass and cement; and then the 






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112 EVANGELISM 

in the morning and be in the next by evening. This means, 
too, that each center has a district belonging to it of from 
twenty to thirty miles square. The distance between these 
centers we expect the local churches to fill up. 

~, B., . But now suppose as a result of this 

1 ne rirst , , -, . . -, 

Approach survey a center has been determined upon. 

The next step is actually to begin the task of 
introducing Christianity to it. For this purpose we usually 
select two of our most tactful Chinese evangelists, and some 
morning after a word of prayer in the study, they start off 
on a journey of one hundred, two hundred, or five hundred 
li to the place decided upon. They quietly enter the 
town and take up their abode in one of the inns. They 
do no preaching, they carry HO Scriptures to sell, they 
tell no one that they are connected with the church. To 
any one who questions they merely reply, " We have a little 
business," which at the beginning is sufficient to disarm any 
suspicion ; and the next morning they begin their business. 
They begin to inquire of any one they meet casually at the 
inn or on the street, to learn who are two or three men in 
the city most highly respected for their character and 
position, men who are called by the Chinese "Shan jen." 
They get an introduction to these men, and take all the 
time necessary to win their friendship. This may take a 
longer or shorter time. It is not a question of time here. 
It may take several months even, but it is fundamental. 
During this time they talk little about themselves, and only 
gradually come to the point of explaining fully who they 
are, and what Christianity is and can do for a man or a 
community. If this approach has been carefully made, and 
the explanation carefully given, this type of a genuinely 
moral man will usually be won for Christ. It is important 
thus to get these two or three key men of a community. 

For a couple of months longer the 

.Looking tor ,. , . ,. ,-, -n ,, , 

Key Men evangelists will give practically all their time 

to these men, in conversation or by direct 
Bible study, or by the explanation of other books, laying in 
their hearts a firm understanding of the fundamentals 
of Christian faith. And then some day the suggestion will 



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114 EVANGELISM 

church is doing. This is taking advantage of a regular 
Chinese custom in this part of China. Custom requires 
that whenever a new place of business is opened in a 
community the manager must either call in person or send 
his card to the leading men of the community and to the 
other shops, and explain what this new business is which 
he proposes opening in their midst. We try to discover 
and make use of as many of these Chinese customs as 
possible. In this instance we also have opened our "place 
of business" so we also make our series of calls according 
to custom. 

Now Chinese custom also requires that any man 11ms 
called upon must make a return call. In a sense it is a sort 
of advertising scheme. It insures every business man hav 
ing the satisfaction of knowing that at least once, if never 
thereafter, his shop will have the honor of being visited by 
all the leading men of the community, who in turn will have 
the opportunity to see what his business is. The same thing 
happens with us. We make our call and pass on to the next 
place. The manager of the shop just called upon soon 
takes his card and goes down to see the place we have told 
him about, and what we may have there. At the door of 
the chapel he is met by two men who are there for that 
purpose, is ushered in and given a cup of tea, and they have 
a chat. Once more, and this time from the lips of a Chinese, 
he listens to an explanation of what Christianity is, and 
what it can do for an individual or a community, and what 
it intends to do in his city. This means that by the time a 
man has done what simple etiquette alone requires he 
should do even to one who may not be a friend, he has had 
to listen to two explanations of what Christianity is and 
what the church plans to do in that community, not enough 
to convert him, for that seldom happens, but it has been 
sufficient to enlighten his ignorance as to what the church 
is, and almost always it disarms his suspicion, breaks down 
his prejudice, and thus removes at the very start virtually 
all of the opposition or persecution which under ordinary 
methods may remain to hinder the work in a community for 
twenty or thirty years. 









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116 EVANGELISM 

The helpfulness of the above policy so far 
of as wor ^ e( ^ ou ^ seems to lie in these four 
This Plan points. First, it makes possible the carrying 

of a comparatively large work with a com 
paratively small expenditure of funds. Second, it means 
breaking down and removing at the very beginning the 
prejudice, opposition, and persecution which so often delays 
for years the work of the church in new communities. 
Third, it pushes Chinese leadership to the front and keeps 
foreign influence in the background, it gives to the Chinese 
leaders their rightful place of leadership; and fourth, places 
the responsibility for the evangelization of their people upon 
the Chinese Church, where it belongs. 



CMAPTE* XI 
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118 EVANGELISM 

P. .. Between two and three hundred of these 

full-time , , rn , 

Colporteurs men are employed. The rates of pay are 
about equal to the salaries of evangelists and 
preachers in the employ of missions. In some provinces 
only Mex. $7 to $8 per month are required; in others, it 
runs from Mex. $9 to $15 with a traveling allowance 
which averages about $4 per month. Many of these men 
have been trained in Bible schools, and are well qualified 
for their work ; they are men of good Christian standing. 
Most of them are under the immediate supervision of 
missionaries and are counted as part of the mission staff. 
This recognition of the colporteur s work serves both the 
mission and the society. The colporteur should be an 
itinerating evangelist. Other evangelists are, for the most 
part, stationary ; but the "man with the book" goes far afield, 
delivering his testimony and leaving the written work in the 
remotest parts of the district. 

(*. . The Church should take an interest in 

Need 01 Mission , . , rr ,. 

Cooperation ms work. Ihe colporteur gams in self- 
respect and efficiency when his labors receive 
the recognition they deserve. Nothing has done more harm 
to colportage than the practice of some missionaries to 
regard it merely as a sphere of employment for inquirers or 
Christians, who want something to do and whose characters 
are altogether untried. No men should be encouraged to 
think that easy work will be found for them, and it is 
unfair to the Bible societies that men who are incompetent 
for any other form of service, and who receive little or no 
training, should be recommended for employment as 
colporteurs. Colporteurs should go forth on the journeys 
with the prayers of the local church, and they should 
render some account of their experiences to the church upon 
their return. Incidentally it will be found that there is no 
better check upon irregularities than a close relation between 
the colporteur and the Chinese church. Of the* forty or 
fifty colporteurs under the supervision of subagents some 
are always on duty in districts where special service is 
required. At the request of missionaries these men are sent 
to assist in systematic visiting of a given area, to follow up 



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120 EVANGELISM 

In many cases this method produces very 

Working satisfactory results. The colporteur-evangel- 

SatTsf actor fly ^ itinerating with the missionary helps in 

many ways. Again we take an illustration 

from the 1918 report : 

The colporteurs have continued their work largely as 
last year. There have been two men at work full time and 
five part time. They have labored mostly in the newer 
and unorganized districts of our large field. They have 
been earnest and faithful, and their efforts have done much 
to help on the work of our station and churches. During 
the past year we have received one hundred and forty-nine 
people into full membership in our several fields on profes 
sion of faith. The most marked growth has been in the 
district on the borders of Pingtu. The center of this 
district is a large market town, called Kiudien, where 
we have a street chapel. The colporteur who lives at 
this place has worked in this district for several years 
giving much of his time to the work and getting very 
little help. This year at that place eighteen people were 
received into church membership on profession of faith, and 
there are several inquirers who will be baptized later. 
Some of the colporteurs, with others, spent a month early in 
the year here with us in the city in special Bible study and 
training, and as a consequence they have been better fitted 
for their work, and altogether the results have been en 
couraging and satisfactory." (J. P. Irwin, Tengchowfu, 
Sung. ) 

,, , There are always members of churches 

Voluntary , , . J , , . ..... 

Colporteurs w ^ a ^ certain seasons are able to give a little 
time to assist their church students during 
their long summer vacations, farmers (in the northern 
provinces) when winter makes ordinary farm work impos 
sible, and others who are glad to help the church by taking 
part in special evangelistic work. Bands of such men 
under a Chinese pastor or missionary go into the less worked 
parts of the field and preach in village after village and in 
this way cover a lot of ground. Each man takes his bundle 
of Scriptures and tracts and leaves behind him a Gospel or 



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PART IV 

GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

CHAPTER XII 

TEACHER TRAINING IN CHINA 

H. T. Silcock 

The importance of this subject may be 
Teacher"" regarded both quantitatively and qualita- 
Training tively. On the quantitative side it may be 

noted that in 1918 the Protestant mission 
schools in China contained some 200,000 students requiring 
10,000 trained teachers for immediate needs, to say nothing 
of the even greater number that are urgently called for to 
staff the new schools planned by the various churches and 
missions. Of the teachers actually in service a large 
proportion are not well trained. One who has for years 
given himself entirely to the work of training teachers 
writes that if we could "show up the present inefficiency 
and unpreparedness of the present teaching body, not only 
for educational effect but also for Christian leadership . . . 
the result would be to stab the missions wide awake. 
On the qualitative side it may be remembered that China is 
preeminent among the nations for the honor she has 
always paid to the teacher. The teacher has held a unique 
place in China. But of recent years the opportunity for 
the Christian teacher has widened enormously. A corps of 
trained Christian teachers means a system of Christian 
schools, and a system of Christian schools is vital to 
comprehensive plans for evangelism, to schemes for the 
devolution of power from the missions to the Chinese 
Church, and to the permeation of the new China with the 
ideals of Christ. 

T . .... The present statement is confessedly 

Limitations of , l .. . ,, . 

this Chapter on ^y a preliminary attempt to survey this 
particular n eld. Only in the spring of 1919 



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124 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

courses are of very great importance because so many 
teachers are reached, and they are at least given the idea 
that the teaching profession is one that needs careful prepa 
ration and training. 

This brief review, especially if taken in connection 
with recent edicts and statements from Peking regarding 
the training of teachers and preparation for the enforcement 
of universal education, may perhaps be sufficient to show 
that China is in earnest in this matter and is making real 
progress. 

The Roman Catholics have no higher 

i* t*! 7 */** N normal college in China. Their University 
Schools (A) c <,> ,f .. T , * 

Roman Catholic * Aurore, situated in the French Conces 
sion in Shanghai aims at the production 
of teachers, but no course in the theory and practice 
of education is offered. The handbook of Roman 
Catholic Missions (Annuaire des Missions Catholiques) lists 
eighteen "ecoles normales" containing some four hundred 
scholars. These are distributed as follows: Chihli eight, 
Kiangsi four, Chekiang two, and Hupeh, Fukien, Shantung, 
and Szechwan, one each. Probably the list is only 
approximate. One of the schools listed is not functioning 
at present, while another that is preparing a small class of 
teachers finds no place in the handbook. The need of 
trained teachers is evidently realized, but no coordinated 
system of training has been worked out. 

(B) Protestant Protestant missions in China are carry- 

Normal Schools i n on about forty normal schools or 
normal courses. In some cases these take 
the form of normal classes in middle schools, but 
this is generally an initial stage wh ich tends to give 
place to a more highly organized normal school. One 
such school is coeducational, and plans for coeducational 
normal schools are being discussed in othef centers. In 
the majority of cases the normal schools take students 
who have completed their higher primary work and give 
them one, two, or three years of normal training before 
sending them out to take posts in lower and higher 
primary schools. Some, however, of the existing schools are 






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126 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

definitely for lower primary work and the other for 
higher primary, the results would probably be much more 
satisfactory. 

An Illustration Such in outline is the scheme of teacher 

training that has been worked out by ex 
perimentation in different parts of China, and endorsed 
by the China Christian Educational Association. To make 
the scheme more concrete, a brief outline may be given 
of the teacher training carried on in West China, where the 
organization of the different courses has followed this 
general plan and is tolerably complete. 

A beginning was made with normal classes in the 
middle school of the West China Union University, and 
these were elaborated into a normal course and then into a 
lower normal school with its practice school; summer 
institutes were added ; then a higher normal course in the 
senior division of the university; a women s normal 
school was opened; and lastly a middle grade course in 
the junior division for higher primary teachers. Parallel 
with this went the development of the E iucational Union, 
standardizing schools, and (later on) teachers qualifications. 
The faculty of education of the university has on its staff 
the general secretary of the Educational Union and thus 
the faculty and the union are closely linked. The various 
courses at Chengtu preparing teachers for middle, higher 
primary, and lower primary schools, and the summer 
institute giving more elementary training are under the 
immediate care of the faculty of education but are, 
through the Educational Union, linked with the system 
of Christian schools throughout West China. 

The higher course offers three years of nineteen 
hours credit a week and leads to the degree of B.A. 
Students may take one "group" (six hours a week) in 
education and one in their special subject, or if preparing 
for .administrative work they take two "groups" (twelve 
hours a week) in education; the remaining seven are 
given to religious instruction, Chinese, and electives. The 
middle grade is a two-year course in the junior division, 
with fifteen hours a week in the first and thirteen in the 
second year given to professional subjects. The lower 



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128 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

second as reference books. The Chung Hwa and Com 
mercial Press companies also issue good educational 
monthlies, and series of teachers handbooks on the primary 
subjects. Books on Bible study are well known and need 
no special mention. The Boy Scout books are a valuable 
adjunct to normal training, several may be obtained from 
the Commercial Press, and Baden Powell s Scouting for Boys 
from the Chinese Tract Society. 

R esu l ts It may seem that the results of all the 

effort put forth to train teachers for the 
Christian Church in China are not very great. Compared 
with the ideal that is certainly true. But when it is re 
membered that the new education " in China is of very 
recent growth, the results already achieved are full of 
inspiration and promise. 

From the limited experience already available the 
following results have been found to follow where teacher 
training is instituted. (1) A larger number of schools can 
be opened. (2) A splendid opportunity is given of strength 
ening and deepening the character of the prospective 
teachers. (3) The educational efficiency of the primary 
schools is raised. (4) A self-respecting body of teachers 
with a living esprit de corps is produced. Christian teacher 
training is nothing if it does not turn out Christian teachers ; 
but experience shows that it does, and the four results just 
enumerated all work together to produce a strong and 
growing Church. The little already accomplished shows 
clearly what great results may be expected as more and 
more are willing to devote their lives to training a corps of 
loyal effective Christian teachers for the schools of the New 
China. 






CHAPTER XIII 
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130 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

direction and another, but there has always been a 
forward, progressive movement under the impulse of the 
divine destiny of the human race. Education is passing 
from the empirical to the scientific stage an incalculable 
gain to society. 

Is this hope of gain also in prospect for 
ReHgS? religious education? This is the question 
Education that vitally concerns every religious teacher. 

Possible The belief that this hope is in prospect is 

pretty general. It is the accepted background 
of this presentation of the work that has been done and the 
progressive plans for the future development of religious 
education in China. 

The growing belief in a science of religious education 
is due to several causes. In general education, 
there is a strong emphasis on the importance of the 
religious elements. This has become particularly evident 
in the National Educational Association of the United 
States. All education becomes religious when it freely 
admits that its data, formulas, and laws are the laws 
of God written in the spiritual and physical forces of the 
universe. Especially does education become religious when 
its chief purpose is to discover, obey, and use those divine 
laws. This merging of general and religious education is 
strengthening the latter and putting it on a higher plane of 
effectiveness. 

gl { The advance made in the methods and 

Progress material of general education has made itself 

distinctly evident in graded lesson courses, 
teacher training courses, Sunday school .teachers insti 
tutes, which give special attention to the psychology of child 
hood and adolescence. The movement is recent but results 
already obtained warrant the growing belief that religious 
education on the mission field can be done more successfully. 
It can be taken out of the field of chance influences and put 
into the field of clearer purpose and greater certainty as to 
results. 

Differences in Religious education in China is carried 

China on under conditions so different from those 

which exist in the Western countries that 



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132 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

be necessary to select material, arrange it, and teach it on 
the basis of three hours per week. The Sunday school and 
week-day teaching ought to be so related as to supplement 
and emphasize each other. At present, they duplicate or 
neutralize each other to the confusion of the students. 

Regarding the second problem, it does not seem 
possible to do much beyond the expansion of the Christian 
Church and a possible increase in the number and size of 
the mission schools. It will be necessary to find a way to 
do, at least, certain kinds of religious teaching so that 
China s own teachers and leaders will recognize their value 
and introduce them into their system of public education. 

The test of religious education Avill be the production 
of Christian character. The individual will be judged not 
merely by his personal life but by his attitude toward all 
the social institutions of China, the family, the community, 
the school, the government, and for all the social relations. 

The beginning of marked improvement 
5 * n re ^gi us education came with the work of 
Education the China Sunday School Union under the 

leadership of Rev. E. G-. Tewksbury. It 
emphasized the selection and grading of Biblical material. 
It has sought to discover the life problems of the youth of 
China and to guide in the solution of those problems. 
Although much still remains to be done in this field, it has 
brought forward better methods and has enlisted larger 
numbers in effective religious teaching by its emphasis on 
teacher training. 

Mr. Tewksbury also promoted special 
The Conferences interest in better methods of teaching the 
on Religious Bible to adu]ts O f the var i us classes. This 

.Education 01 , , . ,,. i < 

Adolescents l ec * to the calling of a special conference in 
Shanghai in October, 1917. The discussions 
at that conference led to the conviction that the religious 
education of the adolescent required specialized study and 
treatment of its problems. 

Committees were appointed from among those interested 
which were soon correlated with the Christian Educational 
Association in order to avoid duplication. Conferences on 












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134 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

The third section makes a critical and comparative 
study of the various methods that are being used in 
religious instruction in mission schools. The result of such 
a study, in one case, was the conclusion reached by one 
well-known missionary that of all the possible methods he 
had been using only one and that the poorest. 

The fourth line of investigation deals with the actual 
results of the religious instruction given as these are 
expressed in Christian character and conduct. It applies 
the acid test to our instruction. 

Religious education in China has reached 
Committees a g^gg O f development where it has an 
on Religious , . 

Education organization to help meet the apparent and 

growing need. The plan is comprehensive 
of the main features of our problem. It affords oppor 
tunity for thorough and scientific reseach along these 
general lines and along the lines of special investigation as 
these make their appearance. 

Mr. Luce did a fine piece of work in making the 
movement understood in the several missionary centers. 
Special committees on religious education have been ap 
pointed in the nine Christian Educational Associations. 
The Advisory Council of the China Christian Educational 
Association has a committee on religious education to serve 
as a clearing house for the work of these several provincial 
committees. It is the task of this committee to promote 
the general interest and the investigations and experiments 
along these four lines, to get the results of the studies and 
conferences in the different centers and to make them 
available for all. 

At the time of preparing this paper, there is in hand 
very little material showing the work that has been done in 
the different provincial committees. For the most part 
there is only keen interest and desire for improvement. 
Some have filled out and sent in the questionnaires and 
these have been very helpful. Mr. E. W. Sawdou, in 
Szechwan province, has been conducting a series of studies 
in the. field of psychology in its religious bearings. These 
have been independent of the bulletin studies and appeared 
before the bulletin questionnaires were published. 










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136 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

analyzed. Recommendations that are likely to have a 
permanent value must be based on the result of a few years 
of study in psychology, pedagogy, and expressionalactivity. 

Related to the work just described, but 

Th olo^cal no * a P ar * ^ ^ are *^ le survev f th e various 

Schools 8 Bible schools and theological seminaries, 

and the conference on theological education. 

The effective development of religious 

Plans for the , ,. , [ , , , . 

Future education depends on at least two things. 

Two or three men, foreign and Chinese, who 
are thoroughly familiar Avith the field of religious education 
and free from other missionary duties, should be set apart 
for this work. There should be financial provision for 
their travel and the preparation of literature. At present 
all the work is done by those who are already overburdened 
by their regular mission work. 

s , j j There is great need of a school for 

Research research and demonstration in this particu 

lar field. If there were a strong Christian 
teachers college, the department of religious education 
should be an integral part of that college. The research 
work outlined by the bulletin is really the work of such a 
school. A few individuals are trying to carry it on along 
with the regular work but the results are discouraging 
because consecutive work is impossible. 

There is good reason to believe that 
Present provision will be made to meet these two 

Unsatisfactory great needs, before many years have passed. 
The majority believe that religious education 
is the primary object of missionary work. It does not seem 
probable that we shall continue to leave religious education 
to the present hit-and-miss methods and to a relatively 
small number of missionaries who are able to give even a 
little time to the serious study of scientific religious 
education. Religious education has learned from general 
education and it will continue to do so. The religious 
interest and issue is the greatest in life and it must come to 
its proper place in the reshuffling of the world s ideals and 
standards. 



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138 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

The first line is to continue the study outlines in 
Bulletin Number Tico. There is sufficient work mapped 
out there to keep the various groups busy for three or four 
years in making a serious study of at least one generation 
of students. 

Second, it is possible to form groups for reading and 
discussion of topics and books on the subject. it is 
necessary for the majority of missionaries as shown by 
actual vote, to get the viewpoint of the movement and an 
understanding of its principles and methods. It is thought 
that Miller s Education for the Needs of Life will be 
most helpful for the majority of readers. It presents 
clearly the principles underlying modern educational 
movements and gives some practical suggestions. There are 
a number of other books that should be read. Coe s 
Education in Religion and Morals is the best to begin 
with. It has exercised a wide influence in improving Bible 
teaching in America. His latest book, A Social Theory of 
Religious Education, should follow the reading of the 
other two books mentioned. Among other good books, is 
Professor N. E. Richardson s The Religious Education of 
Adolescents. 

In the third place, there is an insistent 
Curriculum demand for an improvement in the cur- 
Bible Study , T*-ui i. j mi xr 
Courses riculum Bible study courses. Those for the 

primary schools have been revised on the 
basis of the graded Sunday school series. As in similar 
cases in the West, the courses provided for adolescents 
have not been as satisfactory. Individuals and local 
groups can work on temporary improvements in these 
courses. There might be some better textbooks prepared, also. 
Religious education has been carried on ever since the 
church received the Lord s command to go forth and teach 
and make disciples. It has been carried on by a limited 
number of church members, pastors, and Sunday school 
teachers. The reason for the appearance of the term 
"religious education" and the special emphasis it now 
receives lies in the fact that not only the Church but society 
as a whole is becoming vitally interested in doing its 
religious instruction on a larger and more effective scale. 



% iMiuPi uunu 









CHAPTER XIV 

THE EVANGELIZATION OF STUDENTS IN CHINA 
Arthur Rugh 

Th Wi , The students of China are the ripest field 

Open Door f r evangelism on earth. That statement will 
doubtless be questioned. Though we believe 
it true we have no desire to argue the point. Enough to 
say that the field is so dead ripe that the sickle can be 
thrust in anywhere with an assurance of a rich and ready 
reaping. Ask any teacher in a mission school, or any 
Christian teacher in a Government school, and you get the 
impression that the students generally are very sensitive to 
the Christian appeal and very often aggressive in their 
desire to learn whether Christianity be China s last hope 
and theirs. And this is specially fortunate with the newly 
discovered power of leadership in the student class. 
During the strike in Jane a sign appeared on a Shanghai 
shop, " We strike for *back of students." Many a school 
teacher has done that without being any evidence of a new 
order of society in a nation. 

China has always put her students first in literature, 
her merchants first in reality, and lately her soldiers have 
been bidding vigorously for first place. 

- . It was an awakening to many in many 

Consciousness , -, , <./- -i j. 

of Need lands when the merchants of China said to 

Peking, " Hear the students and obey." In 
this new-found power to lead, the students sorely need 
Christianity, and it is well that they are conscious of the 
need. If they should sell out, if they should follow 
the long, long trail of predecessors who came into power 
and betrayed their trust, if they lose their vision and their 
power to will the right, then China may well despair. 

*I. e., in order to back up the students. 



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142 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

to study school administration, economics, and other 
subjects. This is a distinct gain. Any general plan to 
secure men specially trained in Biblical pedagogy or 
systematically to increase the skill of the regular faculty 
member in Bible teaching is not evident to one who visits 
the schools in search for this thing. Where instruction in 
Christian truth is so large an element in securing intelligent 
decision for the Christian life as it is in China, it would 
seem the part of wisdom to seek excellence at this point. 
Given good Bible teaching by men trained for the task, and 
a faculty with as much time and energy to evangelize as it 
should have, not hundreds but thousands more of China s 
scholars would each year become Christians. Voluntary 
Bible classes in .mission schools are productive also of 
decisions but would be much more so if their leaders were 
better trained. 

The Value of Special efforts to evangelize students 

Special Efforts have been surprisingly productive. Campaigns 
conducted by Dr. Cheng Ching-yi, Dr. Chen 
Wei-ping, Dr. Sherwood Eddy, Rev. Ding Li-mei, and others 
have in practically every case surprised the promoters with 
the results attained. There is the old temptation to depend 
upon a speaker to get results in a series of meetings rather 
than to carry on a steady program of personal evangelism 
aided and intensified by a series of meetings. But here the 
lesson of experience is being learned, and the typical 
evangelistic campaign of the future will be a steady 
program of the personal winning of friends to decision by 
many workers, in which, at intervals, evangelists with a 
vital message will render their invaluable service. 

Bible classes are the most productive 
The Bible Class me t;} 10{ j O f evangelism among Government 
as an evangel- -, T , i j /v> , . 

izing Agency school students. It is not seriously difficult 

in any city to enroll as many non-Christian 
students from Government schools as can be provided with 
successful leaders of groups. This table of classes 
conducted by the Young Men s Christian Association in 
Tientsin is more or less typical of what is being done in the 
Government student centers. 



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144 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

Government schools. The average report of a student 
conference includes, as its most surprising item, an unex- 
pected number of decisions for the Christian life. 

Retreats One type of conference of which little 

is heard is producing large results. This 
consists of a week-end retreat of selected men from Govern 
ment schools. Twenty to fifty men who have been faithful 
in Bible study are taken for a few days to some temple or 
quiet resort. An easy daily program of Bible study and 
lectures is carried out, but the heart of the conference is 
open-air friendship between leaders and delegates. Enough 
leaders are provided so that every delegate " has a friend" 
among the leaders, and the results are surprisingly large 
and are permanent. Such a conference for Chinese students 
in Tokyo yielded ten decisions out of forty delegates and 
that was not an unusual proportion. One such conference 
of twenty delegates, held two years ago, has already 
produced three recruits for Christian service. 

C nditi n f There are no barriers to a great advance 

Success i n the evangelization of students. In fact 

conditions among the students invite head 
long advance. What are the necessary elements in such 
an advance? 

R ea lity 1- Thoroughness and reality in the work 

done. Leaven does its Avork rapidly and 
irresistibly if it is real leaven. One student in a Government 
normal school brought eighty of his fellow students into the 
Bible classes and kept a steady stream of them uniting 
with the church. The explanation was not leadership, mob 
psychology, rice, politics, or English. The fellow was 
converted and had a vital religious experience. Nineteen 
non-Christian students entered a mission school and were 
all Christians before the year was over because one of the 
juniors was live leaven. Evangelism needs to be reduced 
to a science. We are not justified in guessing at the laws 
of success here and trusting the work to untrained men. 
But the chief method is to bring a student into a conscious 
experience of being reborn into a spiritual life in Christ, 
and then turn him loose in the school. The first thing for 



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14.6 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

Student Volunteer Movement during the last year has had 
three secretaries on the field recruiting many strong men. 
An even stronger staff is at work this year but the whole 
leadership of the Church must go to work recruiting high 
grade men for the ministry. This is the first generation of 
students waiting, ready to be won. A pastorate adapted 
to this new task must be raised up. 

~ a j Qed 5. Evangelists of power and balance 

Evangelists must be found and used. The field is wide, 
there being more than a thousand schools of 
middle or higher grade alnong whose students aggressive 
evangelism can be done. There are not specialists enough 
for their part in the task. 

A "Wo kin ^ r ^^ e spirit of evangelism must per- 

Church r vade the whole Church. Winning a student 

into a church whose members are intent on 
being saved rather than on saving some one else will not 
tend rapidly to the winning of the students. 
Conclusion The experience of the past and of previous 

years would indicate that these are some of 
the elements of a program which would effectively evangel 
ize China s students, save the nation, refresh the Church 
in all nations and make Christianity dominant on earth. 



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148 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

Object The object of the Association is "the 

coordination and symmetrical growth of 
higher Christian education in China." 

Constitution 
Article J. Name 

This Association shall be called the Association of 
Christian Colleges and Universities in China. 

Article 2. Object 

The object of this Association is to bind together 
in closer cooperation the Christian higher educational in 
stitutions in China for mutual conference, inspiration, and 
helpfulness. 

Article 3. Constituent Bodies 

All Christian educational institutions in China that 
offer arts, science, technical, or professional courses above 
middle school grade shall be entitled to representation in 
this Association. 
Article 4. Membership 

The following institutions constitute the members of this 
organization. (Here to be inserted the list submitted by 
committee on completing organization.) 
Article 5. Representation 

Each institution shall be entitled to two representatives, 
one the president or his proxy, the other a member of the 
staff, who shall enjoy all the rights and privileges of 
the various meetings and conferences. 
Article 6. Meetings 

The Association shall hold biennial meetings preferably 
just previous to and at the same place as the meeting of the 
Advisory Council of the China Christian Educational As 
sociation. Special meetings may be called by the President 
at the request of representatives of not less than five 
institutions. 
Article 7. Officers 

The officers shall be a President, a Vice President, and 
a Secretary-Treasurer who shall be elected at each biennial 



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150 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

present political situation, includes one university, two 
technical schools, and six higher normal colleges. There 
are also the schools conducted by the Roman Catholics, a 
few schools with national connections, such as the English 
University of Hongkong, and the American Indemnity 
School at Tsing Hua, a part of the Chinese government 
system, various medical colleges and theological seminaries, 
and a few institutions under private Chine.se control. The 
standards in these schools vary greatly. 

The fortunate location of these institutions is instantly 
apparent upon looking at the educational map of China. 
They are all located in provincial capitals and other 
strategic centers, with territory sufficient to provide an 
unlimited student body. They command the respect and 
support of the people and are given the fullest liberty in 
their work by the authorities a condition that can be 
duplicated in no other mission field. 

The scope and function of higher educa- 
Scope and ,. j 

Function: tion under mission auspices m China is re 

garded as being: 

1. The provision of a liberal college education of from 
two to four years, following a middle school course; this 
education to serve as preparation for professional and 
graduate studies. 

2. The provision of professional education in those 
branches needed for carrying on the regular work of the 
missions, which will not be given at all by non-Christian 
institutions, or which will not be presented in a manner 
adapted to meet mission requirements; that is, 

a. Theological education adequate to provide not 
only workers for immediate needs, but also men who shall 
be able to replace as well as assist the foreign missionary, 

b. Christian normal education to prepare teachers 
both for mission schools and for non-Christian institutions. 

3. The provision of opportunities at a very few centers 
for professional and graduate studies of a high grade in 
certain other departments which are not now being 
adequately provided for by other agencies. Such schools 
will afford : 



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152 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS - EDUCATION 

requiring large expenditure for maintenance, if another 
university has already undertaken to maintain such a de 
partment with reasonable prospect of success. 

Recommendations Adopted at the Conference 

Teacher Realizing the urgent necessity of improv- 

Training i n o and enlarging the facilities for training 

teachers, we heartily indorse the general plan 
of the China Christian Educational Association.* But as we 
believe this can be largely accomplished and is being 
contemplated by various colleges and universities, we 
recommend that the secretary of the China Christian 
Educational Association be requested in conference with 
the China Continuation Committee and with the institutions 
concerned, to prepare a new statement distributing the 
proposed budget as far as possible among the colleges 
planning normal work. 

_y , al Resolved : that this conference urge 

Commission upon the Committee of Reference and Counsel, 
and the Interchurch World Movement, the 
importance of sending at the earliest possible date, 
the international educational commission already called 
for by the China Continuation Committee and the China 
Christian Educational Association. 

It is the conviction of this conference that this 
commission should be composed of not less than three, and 
probably five persons, qualified to study the whole edu 
cational situation in China with a view to advising the 
authorities on the field as to the development of an adequate 
Christian educational system in China. 

This commission should be qualified to give expert 
advice in matters of college administration, and such 
modern developments in education should be introduced 
into China, as well as advice in regard to secondary and 
industrial education. 

This educational commission should be able to spend 
one full year iu China giving their undivided attention to 

*Note. For the recommendations of the C. C. E. A. see Appendix. 



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154 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

the girls middle schools and the establishment of many 
more such schools to act as feeders to the colleges already in 
existence. 

4. The present successful experiment iii coeducation 
now beiug carried on in South China deserves our interest. 
The success of this undertaking proves that coeducation 
will coine in other parts of China and should be looked 
forward to in our plans for the future development of 
higher education for women in China. 
Business Courses We recognize the need in China of 
courses in modern business administration. 
We recognize also the limitation of resources and the danger 
of attempting new courses at the expense of existing depart 
ments. We therefore recommend : 

1. That such work (if attempted) should be organ 
ized as departments of existing colleges of arts and sciences. 

2. That no college should attempt a course in business 
administration without funds for its support and with 
out at least one man fully trained in that line of work. 

3. That we look forward to the time when there shall 
be developed one first-rate school of business administration. 
s h j , Your committee would heartily commend 
Journalism the idea of starting a school of journalism 

in Peking in connection with the Peking 

University, and would bespeak the support of the same 

by the institutions represented in this conference by the 

sending of students who show signs of ability in that. line. 

Agricultural and Forestry Schools 

1. Requirements of an Agricultural School in China. It 
is obviously impossible for your committee, without expert 
knowledge and without time to consult authorities on the 
subject, to arrive at definite conclusions in this matter, but 
certain facts throwing light on the question may be cited. 

It is believed that the estimates of the University of 
Nanking for staff and funds needed to carry out its plan 
of developments during the next five years are at least not 
excessive. The present staff and maintenance cost of the 
college of agriculture and forestry, with proposed addi 
tions, are as follows : 



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156 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

than one agricultural or forestry school of college grade 
under mission auspices in China. 

4. University of A r anking. As the University of 
Nanking has already organized a college of agriculture and 
forestry, and by its successful work hitherto has secured a 
remarkable degree of recognition from Chinese provincial 
governments, as well as from manufacturers and farmers, 
your committee recommends that its application for addi 
tional staff, maintenance, allowances, and equipment be 
heartily indorsed. Nanking has the additional advantage of 
central location, being within easy reach of the wealthy 
cities and farming districts of the lower Yangtze region, 
and accessible by an easy journey of only a little over a day 
from such northern centers as Peking and Tientsin, with 
Tsinan, still nearer. It is near and in close touch with one 
of the most, perhaps the most influential and enterprising, 
industrial communities in China. The university possesses a 
large area of available land, and can easily secure more 
when required. 

5. Canton Christian College. The committee doubts 
whether it would be wise to develop a complete agricultural 
school at Canton. Since agricultural courses have already 
been successfully started in the college, it would seem ap 
propriate that a certain amount of junior college work 
should be offered in agricultural subjects, but that students 
should be encouraged to go to Nanking for their strictly 
professional course.* It is believed that it would be desirable 
to establish some relationship between the agricultural 



* Editor s Note. Objection to this recommendation has been 
made by the Canton Christian College whose President, Dr. C. K. 
Edmunds, is taking steps with President Bowen of Nanking to secure 
the judgment of experts qualified both as agriculturalists and with a 
knowledge of conditions in both central and southern China as 
to whether a complete agricultural school should be developed in 
Canton. President Bowen has expressed his opinion that " the two 
fields are so far separated and the conditions so different that it 
would seem to me that there would be no possibility of duplication 
or overlapping in any harmful sense." 

Reference to the work of these two institutions will be found in 
another section. 









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CHAPTER XVI 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURAL 
EDUCATION UNDER MISSIONARY AUSPICES 

John H. Reisner 

Interest on the part of the missionary 
body in agricultural education as a legitimate 
Education aQ d fruitful field for mission activity has 

increased very rapidly during the past year. 
Considerable progress has already been made along practi 
cal lines in the development of such agricultural work. 
Many desirous of instituting agricultural work are held up 
because of lack of teachers. Including the two higher 
institutions, Canton Christian College and the University 
of Nanking College of Agriculture and Forestry, there are 
at least seventeen foreign-trained (including both Chinese 
and foreign) men devoting full time to agricultural and 
forestry work tinder missionary auspices. As the object of 
this short article is to show rather than discuss the present 
status and development of missionary agricultural work, 
the following brief statements are made: 

For the first time in the history of the 

Action of associations, the programs of the 1919 annual 

Educational ,. . _^ . 01 TI 

Associations meetings of the East China, Shantung-Honan, 

and Central China Christian Educational 
Associations included papers discussing the place of agri 
culture in our mission school work. The East China 
Christian Educational Association appointed a committee 
on agricultural education. The Shantung-Honan Associa 
tion appointed a committee on agriculture and voted the 
following actions: 

Resolved: that the Association give the 
Shantung-Honan . ,,. , ,., ... ,, - . ,. 

Association Agricultural Committee of the Association 

the following powers: 

1. To write the various boards and missions support 
ing the College of Agriculture at Nanking as follows: 



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160 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

The following resolutions were presented 

National* l 3 ^ an unofficial committee of those particularly 

Association interested, to the China Christian Educational 

Association, last September, as seeming to fit 

the needs and demands of the situation : 

1. That it is our conviction that the time has come 
to make agriculture a part of our educational activities and 
that it is desirable to prepare a suitable program for the 
carrying out of same, to be included in the Interchurch 
World Movement. 

2. That the Executive Committee of the China 
Christian Educational Association be empowered to appoint 
a committee on agricultural education, whose duty it shall 
be to prepare an "All China" program looking toward the 
introduction of agriculture into our mission schools through 
the development of provincial normal training centers 
for the suitable preparation of teachers. This committee 
shall also prepare a list of factors that shall be used in 
determining the location and establishment of such training 
centers. 

3. That the Executive Committee of the China 
Christian Educational Association be empowered to act on 
the findings of the Agricultural Committee and present 
the matter to the China Continuation Committee for their 
approval and recommendation for inclusion in the Inter- 
church World Movement. 

Fokien The Fukien Christian Educational 

Association Association has appointed an Arbor Day 

committee, and the findings committee of 

the association have made the following recommendations : 

1. That in planning the observance of Arbor Day, 
the committee appointed by the association work, as far as 
possible, in harmony with the government. 

2. That in order to make practicable the enthusiasm 
of Arbor Day, the committee urge that each school, if 
possible, secure a plot of ground not too far from the school 
and plant and maintain trees upon it. 

3. That the program for Arbor Day be printed and 
circulated both in Chinese and English. 



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162 GENERAL AND RELIGIOU3 EDUCATION 

" Therefore we would ask that the board act favorably 
on the request which will be made by the University of 
Nanking Board of Managers asking that our quota of four 
men for the University of Nanking be increased to five, 
the fifth man to be a permanent member of the College of 
Agriculture and Forestry." 

The following resolutions to the Post- War Conference 
of the Presbyterian Church to be held in 1920 were passed 
at the same time, by the mission. 

Relative " In regard to the question of industrial 

Importance of work, we recommend that emphasis be 

IndasWalWork P laced on the importance of distinguishing 

between industrial and agricultural work. 

We would also recommend the importance of 

emphasizing agricultural work in our missionary enterprise, 

(1) because of its great educational value; 

(2) because it is easily introduced into lower and 
higher primary schools in the form of school gardening 
and nature study, and as elementary agriculture in higher 
primary or middle schools, where it can have large influence 
on the rural population of China, and 

(3) because it is a less expensive form of training and 
can be utilized in both the evangelistic and educational side 
of our work. 

"Mission industrial work is greatly needed when it 
contributes 

(a) to the development of new industries which are 
likely to become indigenous to China, or 

(6) to the improvement of old industries. Industrial 
chemistry, such as is being introduced by Mr. Speers in 
India, and Mr. Thomson at the University of Nanking, is to be 
recommended rather than industries of the sweat-shop type." 

"In regard to the question What more can be done 
to reach distinct classes of the population and to unify 
these in the Church? we would suggest that steps be taken 
to meet the needs of the farmers of China, who represent 
some eighty or eighty-five per cent of the population of this 
country, by agricultural missions." 



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164 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

prejudice against the scholar soiling his hands with manual 
labor. Moreover, such a type of school had to demonstrate 
clearly its value before it could hope to win acceptance by 
the Mission Council. Under the able direction of Mr. S. H. 
Soper, however, results have abundantly justified the leap. 
Examine, if you will, the academic record; or walk across 
the farm between four and five o clock of an afternoon and 
watch the sixty swinging hoes backed by smiling faces and 
healthy physiques; or investigate the growing crops of 
cotton, peanuts, onions, wheat, corn, roots, potatoes, etc., 
and the signs of success are unmistakable. There are now 
sixty-six boys in the school (thirty-one of whom are self- 
supporting) yet not one iota of trouble has been caused by 
any student refusing to soil his hands. The general 
results have been a high grade of physical health; a mental 
alertness in the classroom; a marked moral tone; an 
academic record that this year places the school second in 
point of excellence of its graduating class among the fifty- 
two higher primary schools of the West China Christian 
Educational Union, coming vuthin three per cent of winning 
the banner; and most immediately practical of all, the 
opportunity for thirty-five boys a year to receive a Christian 
education which otherwise they could not have had (and, 
the writer would add, one that fitted them for a life s 
work, in which Christian leaders are most urgently 
needed)." 

Another interesting, successful, and sug- 

Experiment in ,. ,. , , . 

Manchuria gestive practical demoustratiou has been 
made by Mr. J. Vyff, of the Danish Lutheran 
Mission, Antung, Manchuria, who in 1911, on his own 
financial responsibility and that of some Chinese friends, 
started a school with twenty-one boys in connection with a 
nursery. The mission has now taken over the school and 
will add the services of a trained nursery man from Den 
mark, to assist. The school was at first called a coolie 
school, but is now being used as a pattern for other schools 
and receiving highest commendation. The school consists 
of lower and higher primary, and middle school grades. 
The lower primary boys have their school garden. In the 
higher primary and middle schools all the boys have to 















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166 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

Mr. Charles H. Riggs, a trained agricul- 

turist has been sent by the American Board 
in Fukien f Commissioners for Foreign Missions to 

their Shaowu Station, in Fukien, where he 
has organized the " Shaowu Agricultural Experiment 
Station" and has been successful in securing the cooperation 
and financial support of the Chinese. In addition to some 
experimental work in the improvement of the local crops, 
he writes: " The thing I am trying to do is to study up 
the conditions under which the farmer here is working, 
and find the parts where his farm practice is weakest, and 
then find a remedy for them, and then gradually to work 
out an improved system which is applicable to their 
conditions and based on scientific principles. If in the 
next few years I can work out something definite in the line 
of method to be followed and by that time you can train 
some men for me in the science and theory, then those men 
can take my results and the training which you have given 
them and use this as a basis for working out a school 
curriculum which will satisfy all the conditions as I see 
them now. That a fuliy scientific course would in this 
locality be of little use I am fairly well satisfied. But a 
few highly trained men would be of utmost value in 
helping to work out a course which would be applicable. 
This in a word is my plan at present/ 
A Honan School Mr - Gustav Carlberg, of the Augustana 

Synod Mission, Juchow, Honan, has under 
taken some agricultural work in connection with his 
school. Corn and cotton have been planted for the most 
part. He writes that about ten schoolboys have been 
working under a common laborer with occasional supervision 
by foreigners. We feel the need of some one trained in 
this work who could also take up the teaching of classes 
in the higher primary and middle school. The total sales 
from our cotton and vegetable crops for the past year 
amounted to about seventy dollars." 

Mr. Wade Bostick, of the Southern Baptist 
a^dAnlmai PS Mission, Pochow, Anhwei, is developing 
Husbandry agricultural work in connection with his 

school, particularly along the lines of garden 



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168 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

currency for current expenses and $63,000 for investment, 
as secured. This does not include the budget for the main 
tenance of any of the technical staff. More than twenty 
students are enrolled in the strictly agricultural courses 
and nearly one hundred are doing middle school work in 
agriculture. 

The college herbarium contains more than four thou 
sand specimens and has an organization that is materially 
assisting both Chinese and foreigners to unravel the inter 
esting store of botanical material within this South China 
region, which is still unknown to the scientific world. 

The agricultural staff of the college is cooperating with 
the United States Department of Agriculture, the Bureau 
of Science in Manila, the Kwangtung Experiment Station, 
Peking University, and other institutions at work for the 
development of the agriculture of China. The staff is 
making the college a center for the investigation of impor 
tant phases of Chinese agriculture and is issuing reports on 
its findings. 

The students have organized an active agricultural 
society which is engaged in practical work and is publish 
ing important data in Chinese. 

The college library is rapidly acquiring publications 
which will give it the largest assemblage of current agricul 
tural literature in South China. 

The college has a definite agricultural program calling 
for the increase of staff, the erection of buildings, and the 
acquisition of laud and equipment. Mr. Chung YVing- 
kwong, vice president for Chinese affairs, is campaigning 
for these items among the Chinese and they have been 
included in all recent appeals distributed in America. 

The Canton Christian College holds a unique position 
for the development, through Christian and international 
auspices, of one of the most important agricultural regions 
of the world. 

In Malaysia, in Siam and French Indo-Chiua, there has 
been a remarkable agricultural awakening during the past 
decade. Much of the initiative and physical effort in this 
awakening has been provided by Chinese who have emigrated 
from Kwangtung and Fukieu. It is a common ambition 



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170 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

c .. The work of cotton improvement is being 

Improvement supported by the Cotton Millowners Associa 
tion of China (foreign) and the Chinese 
Cotton Millowners Association. The former have guaran 
teed the salary and working budget of Mr. J. B. Griffing, 
with special cotton training and experience in the United 
States, for three years, and the latter have provided this 
year s expenses of our cotton experiment station. The 
cotton work has been done heretofore mainly with foreign 
varieties, but emphasis will from now on be placed on the 
improvement of the native cotton. Last year about twenty- 
five cooperators in eight provinces joined in the foreign 
cotton experiment. 

Seed Selection Improvement work has been carried 

forward with corn, rice, and wheat. Seed 
from improved corn (Chinese) is ready for distribution 
for this next year. Corn produced this last year on the 
university farm from selected seed yielded twice as much 
as the fields near by. Over one hundred different lots of 
wheat are under experiment, and there are a number of 
cooperators. Valuable results may be expected within a 
few years, as indicated by results already secured. 
Fruit Farming About one hundred varieties of fruits, 

Chinese and mostly foreign, are under obser 
vation and experiment. A number of foreign fruits have 
been found adapted to Chinese conditions and are being 
propagated for general distribution. 
, ,, Last year free seeds for forty nurseries 

Selling Vege- , , J ,. . , j ru j 

table Seeds were sold, thirty-one under Chinese and nine 
under foreign direction. Twelve hundred 
dollars worth of foreign vegetable seeds were sold, which 
not only afforded foreigners living in China an opportunity 
to secure good seed at a low cost, but helped to maintain the 
practical work of the department. A seed trade is being 
developed with foreign countries, the profits going to the 
maintenance of the field work. Eighteen hundred dollars 
worth of nursery stock was sent to all parts of China, 
mostly for Chinese forestry undertakings. 



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172 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

Government cooperation has been established as fol 
lows: Training of eleven agricultural and two forestry 
students for the Governor of Shansi ; forestry students as 
follows: Shantung province, three; Anhwei province, five; 
Kansu province, two ; Yunnan province, one; Peking Central 
Government, three; one agricultural student supported by 
the Kiangsi government. About ninety per cent of the short, 
course students in sericulture had official or semiofficial 
connections, and through the forest nursery work the Col 
lege is coming into contact with an increasing number of 
district and other minor officials. 

Land Under ^ e College of Agriculture and Forestry 

Cultivation nas about four hundred mow of land under 
cultivation. One hundred and fifty mow of 
land for their permanent farm and experiment station of 
one thousand mow have already been secured. Money is in 
hand for more land as it can be bought. There has been a 
permanent field staff of thiry-five during the past year, 
which will have to be increased this spring to about fifty, 
and for the busy last spring and summer seasons there was 
a pay roll of about eighty men and women. It will be 
larger this year. 

The College of Agriculture and Forestry offers a five 
years college course in both agriculture and forestry. 
Ninety-six college students are enrolled. There is a staff 
of six foreign- trained teachers, and two more to arrive 
before spring. Three of the four cooperating missionary 
societies in the university have already approved of increas 
ing their quota of four men in the university to five, the 
fifth man to be for agriculture. This will add three men to 
our present staff, not otherwise provided for. Five gradu 
ates of the College of Agriculture and Forestry are 
providing able assistance. *The budget for 1920 is $28,700, 
and does not include expenditures to be made for land and 
buildings as secured. 



*For estimated expense of the department after five years see 
p. 155. 



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174 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

The Hucbow Woman s School has gone a 

Babiesto little W ^ n this task Pu P ils have come 

Boarding School f rom many cities in this and other provinces, 
some to learn their A B C s and others to add 
to their Chinese the courses in home economics and science. 
When the school opened in March, 1917, there were seven 
students; this year twenty-eight pupils have entered 
classes, bringing with them an assortment of seventeen 
children. The women range in age from twenty-one to 
nearly forty, and their husbands come from all walks in 
life students, Y. M. C. A. secretaries, Chinese World 
Student Movement, secretary, lawyers, pastors, rubber stock 
agent, salt commissioner, officials, and many others. 

Carin tor the ^ ie cn ^dren divide easily into two 

Little Ones * classes, those who subsist on mother s milk 
and those who do not. One of the first feats 
of the year is to transfer all children over a year old into 
the second class, and it is surprising what a knowledge of 
dietetics it takes to convince Chinese mothers of the value 
of other foods than milk. If the teacher can bring a foreign 
child on the stage at the psychological moment as an 
advertisement of her point it sometimes saves endless 
discussion and makes a convert of the mother. 

The children s department is an embryo bedlam for 
the first few days of every term. The mothers put their 
wee ones in the nice sunny children s room with its beauti 
ful pictures and delightful playthings, and then the walls 
immediately begin to echo with terrible wails. Fortunately 
the room contains something besides pictures and play 
things our children s nurses, young women who have had 
some grammar school education and who, while in the 
school, take two classes of study a day. Somehow or other 
these nurses bring an atmosphere of peace and happiness 
out of the chaos in a few days time, and all remains serene 
until the next term brings more little strangers. 

T , The older children go to the mission 

Kindergarten kindergarten in the morning, the tiny ones 

sleep in their baskets, and the middle-sized 

ones occupy the playroom. They have their schedule of 



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CHAPTER XVIII 

PROMOTION OF PHONETIC WRITING IN CHINA 
Miss S. J. Garland 



Deciding on a ^ ie s ^ x ^ annual meeting of the China 

Script Continuation Committee, upon the recom 

mendations of the Special Committees on 
Christian Literature and Religious Education, appointed a 
committee to make recommendations with regard to the 
problem of a simplified system of writing Chinese. Through 
the immediate appointment of subcommittees and by 
extensive correspondence, as well as by personal consultation 
with those who had given careful study to this problem, a 
large amount of information was secured. This was laid 
before a conference specially called for this purpose, on 
September 24-25, 1918. This conference, after carefully 
considering all the evidence, voted unanimously to recommend 
the adoption of the Chu Yin Tzu Mn system of phonetic 
writing. 

A Government , This C/n ; Yin 8 / stem was adopted by a 
System conference of seventy representatives of the 

various provinces, called in the first year of 
the Republic by the National Ministry of Education to 
consider the unification of the spoken language. Primarily 
the system was not prepared with a view to teaching 
illiterates but as a means of accurately recording the sounds 
which the conference decreed should be fixed as the standard 
or National form of pronunciation, given to some 7,000 or 
8,000 of the characters in most common use. Had the 
needs of the illiterate masses been more fully cocsidered, 
greater simplicity might have been secured, but in spile of 
certain things which many have desired to see altered, the 
system is readily learned, and, being entirely of Chinese 
origin and having the support of the National Ministry of 
Education, will appeal much more to Chinese literates and 
illiterates than any system, however theoretically perfect, 
which might be the product of foreigners. 















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178 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

distribution. The Fund has moreover supplied the money 
that has been used in the necessary experimental work in 
preparing type. 



Beginnings ^ S P* te ^ ^ ie v l uil tary help SO freely 

Sio W given, the output of literature during the 

year has been disappointingly small. Many 
initial difficulties have, however, been overcome and the way 
prepared for more speedy production in the future. The 
publications of the China Sunday School Union in script 
have met a great need when other literature was scarce and 
have been invaluable in making the system widely known. 

The Chu Yin Tzu Mu had no sooner 
Alterations keen acce P te d by the special committee and 
Only Agreed to announced as the most all round suitable for 
use in missionary circles than suggestions 
began to come from many quarters with a view to correcting 
what were generally felt to be weak places in the system. 
Many of these suggestions were of great value and received 
close attention from the committee. Much correspondence 
with workers in various parts of the country and with the 
promoters of the phonetic system in Peking followed. 
Committee meetings were held to discuss the points at issue 
and finally, correspondence having failed to secure the 
desired concessions, the committee sent two of its members 
as a deputation to Peking. A number of questions and 
suggestions were laid before the Peking leaders of the script 
movement but the outcome was disappointingly small, in 
fact practically nil. To all intents and purposes the system 
remains unchanged. 

"While accepting the system unchanged, the committee 
has made a number of minor alterations in the dictionary 
of national pronunciation with a view to making the 
Christian literature published in phonetic more easily 
intelligible to its readers. No alterations have been made 
without the fullest discussion and the approval of competent 
authorities, both Chinese and foreign. The committee has 
had very emphatic expression of approval of the changes 
made from workers in almost all the Mandarin-speaking 
provinces. 







X 






180 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

the illiterate masses and of hope for the nation. If the 
Chinese scholar can be led to regard the phonetic script 
as a stepping-stone to the study of the historic script, 
not a substitute for it t much of his opposition will vanish 
and he may learn to welcome this new means of helping 
his country. 

Several missions have already pledged 
Missions themselves to promote the use .of the script in 

Approving every possible way, the Norwegian Lutheran 
Mission having made the learning of it com 
pulsory for all their mission agents. Some schools and 
churches have taken up the movement as a direct evangelistic 
agency and are finding it of great practical usefulness. 

Teachfn While the bulk of the teaching done in 

Illiterates the early part of the year has been in the 

line of teaching literates with a view to their 
undertaking the work of teaching illiterates as soon as more 
adequate supplies of literature were available, yet in seven 
or eight provinces illiterates have been taught with very 
encouraging results and there is every prospect of speedy 
growth in this direction. 

Loca [ In Shantung and Hupeh, where the 

Variations vernacular varies very considerably from 

the National spelling, local workers who 
were very keen to introduce phonetic writing have taught 
best to prepare some simple teaching books in locally 
spelled form, so as to make the initial stages easier for the 
beginner. It is confidently expected that after studying 
these introductory books, pupils will be able to read the 
literature prepared in the National spelling. 

While this step may prove advisable in 
System Adapted f centers the committee believes that 

to Needs of , , , . , T . , n . ... 

Mandarin- books prepared in the ^National spelling, with 

Speaking China the addition of the diacritical marks adopted 
by the committee, will be well adapted for 
use throughout the whole Mandarin-speaking area, and 
would strongly urge that in all cases a faithful trial under 
correct pedagogical conditions should be made with the 
standard literature before any changes are made. It will 



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182 GENERAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

Teaching as ^ n some places, Chinese students are 

Patriotic Service taking up the teaching of the phonetic system 
with considerable enthusiasm as a patriotic 
work. The great need at present is more effective teaching 
methods and better-trained teachers. Granted these and a 
rapid expansion of the phonetic movement may be con 
fidently expected. 

T This sketch must not close without men- 

immense ,. .. . . ...... . . , 

Possibilities on ^ the immense possibilities which lie 
before the phonetic movement in China. The 
introduction of a National system of phonetic writing into a 
land in which there are more than three hundred million 
illiterates of all ages is a step w T hich must mean much to the 
world at large whether for good or evil. The present crisis 
in China s internal and international political affairs finds 
her students roused and united as never before to seek some 
means of helping their country. Cannot Christian schools and 
the Christian Church unite in one great effort to use this new 
weapon which has been provided surely by God Himself at 
this critical moment to spread amongst the illiterate masses, 
with a fullness and clearness never before possible, the 
knowledge of the Truth which alone can make men or 
nations really free? Could they not in this way show the 
student body of China the one and only true solution of the 
problems which confront them ? 

Lea oe of ^ n ^ ie n P e ^ uniting all Christian 

Service schools and churches in a widespread cam 

paign against illiteracy, a "League of 
Service " has been proposed, banding together all who will 
help in this great work. Membership badges with ribbons 
and banners for the most successful individuals and 
churches or schools are to be prepared. The motto of the 
League is "Truth shall deliver/ As certain also of 
China s own sages have said, 5 ~p gj M Z. H it, " When the 
state is decadent, use Truth as a means of deliverance." 
Not force, not civilization, not democracy, but truth, the 
Truth as it is in Christ Jesus this alone will save China 
or any other nation, and the Church of God in China has 
now a chance of making that Truth effectively known by 



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PART V 

MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 
CHAPTER XIX 

THE CHINA MEDICAL BOARD 19J8-J919 
Roger S. Greene 

Effect of the ^ike most other enterprises, the work of 

War the China Medical Board during the past year 

was very seriously hampered by various con 
ditions due to the war in Europe. The Director of the Peking 
Union Medical College, Dr. Franklin C. McLean, entered 
the medical reserve corps of the United States Army in the 
fall of 1917 and took a prominent part in the organization 
of the departments of internal medicine in the American 
army hospitals. During the last year of the war he was in 
France as senior consultant in general medicine for the 
American Expeditionary Force, with the rank of major. 
Several other men, either under appointment to Peking or 
under consideration for appointment, were also in military 
service in the American, Canadian, or British armies, and it 
was, therefore, impossible to make much progress with the 
organization of the staff. Early in 1919, however, Doctor 
McLean was released from the army, and since then a good 
deal has been accomplished. Several important appoint 
ments have been made since our previous report. 

Dr. R. Gr. Mills, formerly in charge of 
Additions to ,, , , J ., 

the Staff the research department or the Severance 

Hospital and Medical School in Seoul, has 
been appointed professor of pathology. He has been spend 
ing two years in study and teaching at Johns Hopkins 
Hospital at Baltimore, and will come to China in the fall 
of 1920. 

Dr. J. Preston Maxwell, formerly of the English 

Presbyterian Mission at Yungchun, Fukieu, who has been 

working at Johns Hopkins, and elsewhere under a fellowship 



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186 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

The new buildings of the college and 
Tehin IOn hospital have been seriously delayed by the 
Laboratories difficulty of securing materials and me 
chanical equipment from abroad and by the 
necessity of making certain changes in the plans. The 
southern group, however, comprising the teaching labora 
tories for anatomy, physiology, and chemistry, will be 
finished this fall. The department of anatomy has already 
moved into its new quarters, and the others will soon follow. 
The hospital group will not be finished till the fall of 1920, 
although all but two of the main buildings are now under 
roof, and in some of them a great deal of the interior work 
has been also done. 

The first class enters the medical school 
SSfcaf School P r P er this fall. The registration is not yet 
Proper " complete, as the school was not to open until 

October 1, but there will probably be six 
students in the entering class, five of whom graduated from 
the premedical school this spring, while- one took his college 
course in the United States. There will also be a few 
graduate physicians taking some of the undergraduate 
courses in order to make up the deficiencies in their earlier 
training in the laboratory branches. 

The Premedical Twenty-eight new students have passed 
Course the examinations for admission to the pre 

medical school, of whom six have qualified 
for advanced standing, while twenty-two are admitted to 
the first-year class. These figures are not final, as some 
who have qualified may not register, while other promising 
candidates are taking their examinations later, including 
two who have had their high school work in Canada. 

During the year the trustees voted that 

Decision to W0m en students should be admitted to the 
Admit Women ... . . , ,. , 

Students premedical school, as well as to the medical 

school, on the same basis as men. The 
announcement of this decision appears to have aroused 
considerable interest among students in the higher schools 
for women, and two young women have been already 
admitted to the premedical school. The fact that there are 



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188 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

allowances for travel, but the increased cost of transporta 
tion made necessary additional allowances to Chinese 
students, amounting to $4,000, making the total amount 
granted for Chinese doctors, nurses, and medical students 
$24,923.33. During the year two Chinese doctors who had 
held fellowships in the United States returned to China 
under appointments to the Peking Union Medical College, 
and one of the holders of the nurses scholarships is giving 
temporary assistance in the hospital. Some of the other 
Chinese doctors and nurses who are to return from the 
United States during the next year and a half will be of 
great help when the time comes to open the new hospital. 
Fellowships and aids of various kinds were given to 
sixteen foreign doctors, to a total amount of $15,875. All 
of these doctors had been engaged in hospital work in 
China, and all but one were missionaries. 
Aid to Hospitals O n account of the demands upon the 

resources of the Rockefeller Foundation for 
war work, and partly on account of the increased cost of 
all the enterprises of the Board in China due to the un 
favorable exchauge,-a more conservative policy was adopted 
in regard to the aiding of mission hospitals. It is likely 
that a definite program and budget will be adopted .at the 
meeting of the Board in December, 1919, to cover the work 
of this nature, to be undertaken during the next five years. 
Since the report for the last YEAR BOOK was prepared, the 
following grants have been made : To the Southern Baptist 
Hospital at Yangchow, $45,000 Mex. for buildings and 
equipment; to the American Presbyterian Hospital at 
Changteh, Hunan, an annual grant of $2,250 gold for 
maintenance; to the Northern Baptist Hospital at Shao- 
lising, $1,050 toward the additional cost of an X-ray 
outfit; to the London Mission Hospital at Tsangchow, 
Chihli, toward the support of a nurse; to the American 
Board Hospital at Tehchow, $3,583.55 Mex. toward the 
cost of repairs and improvements made necessary by the 
floods of 1917 and an additional grant for the support of a 
business manager; to the Foreign Christian Missionary 
Society for improvements in buildings and equipment for 
the Luchowfu Hospital, $25,500 Mex., an annual grant of 






I 
9* ** 



CHAPTER XX 

MORAL WELFARE WORK IN CHINA 
Frank Rawlinson 

As a field for survey along all lines of social evil, China 
offers immense possibilities. Vital statistics, however, are 
practically unknown and anything like scientific summaries 
effecting the whole of China are at present impossible. A 
fairly thorough survey of Peking has been secured! 
Preliminary surveys have also been started in some other 
places. 

The absence of scientific data makes it 
Absence difficult to summarize the present situation 

Information ^itli regard to moral conditions in China. 
There is a growing feeling that something 
should be done to stop the exploitation of minors by the 
cigarette trade. Owing to the difference of opinion on the 
use of tobacco by adults, it is possible that nothing further 
than this is at present widely contemplated. The situation 
regarding alcohol is that it is an article of common use at 
feasts and festivals in almost all parts of China, though 
drunkenness, as known in the West, is not very prominent. 
As a beverage at meals it is used to a certain extent by the 
rich. Its manufacture is a recognized industry, taxed by 
the Government. In some places its use seems to be grow 
ing. Not much information as to the composition of 
Chinese alcoholic drinks is available, though it lias been 
studied in some places. The use of foreign liquors and 
wines is appearing in the leading outports, along the 
railway lines, and to some extent in the homes of the rich. 
In the early part of 1918 liquors and wines and ales valued 
at Tls. 82,000 arrived from Canada. As to how far wines 
and liquors are coming in from the United States and 
England, no data seems to be available. 
Revival of With regard to opium there has been a 

Opium recrudescence of its use, and a strong reaction 

in opposition thereto, which is considered by 






. 





















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192 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

Anti-Alcohol "With regard to an anti-alcohol campaign, 

Campaign there has been considerable interest aroused. 

Vigorous protests have been made against the 
proposed invasion of China by foreign brewery interests. 
In January, 1919, at the request of many of the missions, 
the China Continuation Committee sent an appeal to the 
Foreign Missions Conference of North America against 
the proposed plans of American brewers along this line. 
Later four hundred and thirty-six British residents in China 
signed an appeal which was sent to prominent British 
officials and leaders, protesting against the investment of 
British capital in the liquor trade in China. A few 
Chinese protests have also been heard in some places. 
Abstinence from the use of liquor is a condition of church 
membership in some places. In the way of organized 
effort we find that the Christian Endeavor Society is 
doing considerable to promote temperance ideals. The 
W. C. T. U. has branches in China. Dr. Mary Stone is the 
president of the Union in China. This organization has 
published a number of pamphlets and articles dealing with 
the harmful effects of alcohol. Its work is growing. 
In the early part of 1919 Dr. Gandier 
Representative v ^ ie ^ China, looking into the matter of 
of Anti-Saloon .. , . , T . . 

League possible anti-alcohol propaganda in China. 

He held several conferences with those inter 
ested in this movement, especially with the Moral Welfare 
Committee of the China Continuation Committee, which 
was appointed in the early part of 1919 to promote moral 
welfare interests. A movement has been started for the 
establishment of a national office for anti-alcohol propa 
ganda. A short list of questions dealing ^vith this matter 
was sent to every mission station in China. Such answers 
as have come in serve to confirm the statement made above 
as to the lack of definite and comprehensive information as 
to this particular evil. It is felt, however, that the time 
has come when the Christian forces in China must take 
their part in freeing the world from the alcohol blight. 
There is no doubt that the interest being shown in China by 
various anti-alcohol organizations will bear fruit in live and 
widespread activity. 




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194 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WOKK 



The Social Evfl l v h e movement against the social vice, 

while it is just beginning, is full of promise. 
That there is terrible need for it is evident. In 1918 in 
Shanghai, the Moral Welfare Committee was formed, on 
which were represented eighteen local religious and 
philanthropic organizations. This organization has to a 
certain extent studied the situation, though they have 
been hampered for lack of adequate executive offices. The 
percentage of prostitutes in Shanghai is very high, and the 
need of something to curb this evil is evident. As a result 
of the agitation carried on by this organization and others, 
the Shanghai ratepayers at their annual meeting in April, 
1919, appointed a vice commission, which is now studying 
the situation, and, it is hoped, will register some progress. 
The presence, however, of sixteen legal codes of foreign 
nations differing on this problem, makes the task difficult 
though the fact that the legal policy of the nations having 
the majority of the residents in this International Settlement 
is opposed to this business, should enable them in time to 
bring about a great improvement. Part of the work of the 
Special Committee of the China Continuation Committee 
on Moral Welfare referred to above, has been to stir up 
interest in connection with this problem. At their sugges 
tion the matter was presented at various summer resorts. 
One result has been the organization of the Fukien Moral 
Welfare Association, which is taking hold of the problem 
of various social evils in real earest. 

Kuling Missionary Conference recommended that stu 
dents at the theological schools should be taught the 
science of surveys in order that they might participate in 
work of this and kindred societies. This is so valuable a 
suggestion that we venture to pass it on. 

Contacts are being made between the 
Shanghai Moral Welfare Committee, the 
Contacts China Continuation Committee Special Com 

mittee on Moral Welfare, and organizations 
interested in such subjects at home. There are signs of inter 
national cooperation along these lines. In all probability 
the propaganda against the social evil will have a central 






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CHAPTER XXI 

THE BOY SCOUTS IN CHINA 
G. S. Foster Kemp 

History The first troop of Chinese Boy Scouts 

was probably the one started in New York 
by the New York Chinese Students Club in the fall of 1910, 
the president and secretary of which are now scout com 
missioner and councilor respectively of the Canton branch. 
This was the year in which both the British and American 
Scout Associations got their first charters. 

In China itself, the first troops among Chinese boys 
seem to have been the Boone Troop of Boone University, 
Wuchang, and the one started in the Public School for 
Chinese, Elgin Road, Shanghai, by the principal, G. S. F. 
Kemp. Mr. Kemp started his troop in the spring of 1913 
and at the same time formed an association of those 
interested in scouting in Shanghai. Other troops were 
rapidly formed in Shanghai and other cities and they looked 
to this association for leadership. 

In May, 1915, during the second Far 

Forming a Eastern Games, which were held in Shanghai, 
National . . n , . , , ., 

Organization a special rally was held ot scout troops from 
Shanghai and Canton, about three hundred 
scouts taking part. The Shanghai Chinese Scouts Associa 
tion took the opportunity to call a meeting of all interested 
in the scout movement. The result was the organization 
of a national association which later took the name of " The 
Boy Scouts Association of China." The first officers were 
as follows: president, Chung Mun-yew; vice presidents: 
Y. C. Tong, C. C. Nieh, W. E. Leveson, Dr. F. L. Hawks 
Pott. The scout council was composed of the Shanghai 
scout council, thirty names, and the following: Dr. C. C. 
Wong, Peking, Chang Po-ling, Tientsin, Hin Wong, 
Canton, C. F. Lee, Nanking, Cio Lik-daik, Foochow, 
Stanley V. Boxer, Hankow, B. Yen, Wuchang. The officers 



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198 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

The branch enrolls or suspends troops, 
V 5 "^ issues or withdraws warrants to officers, issues 

of" Branches an( ^ nas manufactured its own certificates, 
badges, etc., thus combining the functions of 
the branch with many most important functions of the na 
tional council in England and America. In fact at present 
the branches are independent in all except name and the uni 
formity occasioned by using the same handbook as a general 
guide. An employed staff at headquarters will enable the 
National Council to change this as the association grows 
stronger. National headquarters issuing all warrants cer 
tificates, badges, etc., will make for greater unity. 
The Troop The troop, in China, consists of two or 

more patrols. Ideally it should be limited to 
three patrols, but the lack of scoutmasters in some places 
forbids this. Scoutmasters of the right kind are the 
fundamental need. They have a very great opportunity in 
molding the lives of boys, but they are hard to find. An 
institution or troop committee of at least three responsible 
men must be back of a troop if it desires to be enrolled in 
the association. 

The Patrol The patrol is the basic unit of the move 

ment. In China it consists of from six to 
twelve scouts. It is governed by the boys themselves under 
the leadership of the scoutmaster. It *is the unit for 
competitions, etc. Unless the work of the patrol is thorough 
the boy scouts Movement is a failure. 

Principles While the scout movement in China is 

based on international scout principles, its 
statement of these principles is somewhat different from 
those of other countries. The general principles as stated 
in the Handbook are as follows : 

Alms The aim of the Association is to develop 

good citizenship among boys, by training 
them in habits of observation, obedience, and self-reliance; 
inculcating loyalty and thoughtfulness for others and teach 
ing them services useful to the public and handicrafts 
useful to themselves. 

" The Association is anxious to promote internationas 
peace by entering into friendly relations with organization! 






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200 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

The third section of the principles is on 

Kellgious ... ,. , . 

Policy religious policy. It states that the best kind 

of man can only be developed from the boy 
who recognizes his obligation to his God. This religious 
policy is the deep undercurrent of international scouting. 
The qualifications for scoutmaster in the British Head 
quarters Regulations include, "a full appreciation of the 
religious and moral aim underlying the scheme of, scouting." 
The Canadian policy contains the following: "It is 
expected that every scout shall belong to some religious 
denomination, and attend its services." The American 
Handbook under the head, " A Boy Scout s Religion" says: 
"Scouting presents greater opportunities for the develop 
ment of the boy religiously than does any other movement 
instituted solely for the boys. Its aim to develop the boy 
physically, mentally, and spiritually is being realized very 
widely. The movement lias been developed on such broad 
lines as to embrace all classes, all creeds, and at the same 
time, to allow the greatest possible independence to indi 
vidual organizations, officers, and boys." 

In China objection has been made to the 

Chinese religious policy. The scout movement is 

Objection to .,f ,. . n , T ^ .,, , 

Religious Policy wanted but with religion left out. It will be 
noticed that while the Scout Promise in other 
lands is to God, in China, it is to "my God." In the 
Chinese handbooks the word used for God is Shang-ti a 
name entirely of Chinese origin and venerated by all 
Chinese. It is also used by Christians as a Chinese equiva 
lent for the " Supreme Being." Nevertheless the Kiangsu 
Educational Association has felt it to be necesssiry to 
organize a separate association [based on the scout move 
ment but without reference to God. The Chinese edition of 
the official Handbook of the Boy Scout Association of China 
published by the Commercial Press has also omitted the 
reference to God in the Scout Promise. The reason fcr this 
is not known to the Canton branch. Other scout publica 
tions of the Commercial Press in Chinese give the full 
promise. 






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202 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

1. Commercial and Industrial Division, giving a 
choice of seventeen subjects, such as Bookkeeping, Car 
pentry, Engineering, Printing, Silk Culture, etc. 

2. Educational Division, with nine subjects, Art, 
Architecture, Conservation, etc. 

3. Field Division, with five subjects, including For 
estry, Gardening, Poultry Farming, etc. 

4. Physical Division, with six subjects, Swimming, 
Cycling, Boating, etc. 

5. Service Division, with fifteen subjects, Public 
Health, Sanitation, Fire Control, etc. 

p f j I A second-class scout is allowed to win 

Badges^ f ur Proficiency Badges. A first-class scout 

should win as many as possible, but the work 
must be thorough. 

In addition to the badges he can win All Round Cords. 
If he qualifies in one subject in each of the five divisions, he 
can wear a cord of black silk over his right shoulder. Two 
subjects in each division entitles him to wear a black and 
white cord; three black, white, and blue; four black, 
white, blue, and yellow; five black, white, blue, yellow, 
and red; the colors of the National Flag. The Proficiency 
Badge subjects enable a boy to find his real interests thus 
helping him in the choice of his life work. They also 
broaden his outlook by giving him a working knowledge in 
various subjects. His interest in some of these will continue 
through life. 

Public Services The scouts in China have shown their 

willingness to serve both individually and in 
a public manner. They have often acted as guards, escorts, 
messengers, ticket collectors, etc.. on public occasions. 
Several scouts have won crosses for gallantry. 

Canton Branch As the Canton branch is the largest and 

in some directions the most developed, a 
statement concerning it will probably be of interest. Its 
comparative prosperity was directly started by a small 
training class for prospective scoutmasters, held in the 
fall of 1916. 



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204 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

China are connected with schools, while in America, accord 
ing to Professor Richardson of Boston University, over 
ighty per cent of the troops are connected with religious and 
welfare organizations. The schools in China are at present 
better able to supply leaders than such organizations. In 
China the scout uniforms are often provided by parents 
or schools. If there is any method by which the boys 
can earn the necessary four dollars they are glad to do 
so. Economic conditions in China make this most difficult. 
Of course the uniform plays a very important part in 
the thought of the boy. Chinese boys do not have the 
background of an outdoor life. Few of them have fathers 
or uncles or older brothers who are camping experts, but 
they themselves soon learn and before long become experts. 
The Outlook Scouting has made good in China. The 

boys of China are eager to become scouts. 
There are hundreds of young graduates and older students 
who are anxious to serve their country. Many of these 
are willing to become scoutmasters if they can secure 
training. What is required is the time and thought of men 
who believe in scouting, a few at national headquarters 
with adequate office assistance, a few at branch head 
quarters, and a rapidly increasing body of scoutmasters 
throughout the country. The amount of mouey required 
would not be large and would be well distributed. The 
future of scouting on a national scale is now in the hands 
of the Boy Scouts Association of China and whoever is 
willing to help it as scoutmaster, instructor, councilor, 
-co nmitteeman, or by financial assistance. The second 
national conference of the Association is due in 1920. At 
that time a strong central office ought to be set up control 
ling nationally rather than through the branches the 
standardizing agencies and thus relieving the branch offices 
for more direct supervision of the troops and scouts them 
selves. Several good training courses for scoutmasters 
should be set up in different centers. A good scout 
magazine should be undertaken giving a national tone that 
branch papers cannot supply. A field secretary should be 
Appointed who would encourage and assist the branches in 
their problems and set the spirit for China. 






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206 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORk 

distributed to the people by Chinese physicans and through 
the native churches. Health campaigns are promoted by send 
ing lecturers out through the city and by inviting students 
to lectures given at the building. An anti-tuberculosis 
calendar was widely distributed. 

Tsinan. In addition to city-wide campaigns a child 
welfare exhibit is conducted, reaching many people in a 
direct way and also making an occasion for special publicity 
in the press on the vital matters of child welfare. 

Soochovj. Through the aid of a medical missionary 
and some of the gentry a distribution of folders dealing 
with mosquitoes and malaria has been made. Students in 
the science department of the university have run a series 
of popular health articles in the newspapers, touching the 
fly menace and other vital topics. 

Wuchang. Anti-fly lectures have been put on and 
other subjects are to be covered in a fall series. 

Shanghai. For several years a health campaign of fifty 
to one hundred lectures, given in schools, churches, and 
branch health office headquarters, has been promoted. 
Much carefully prepared literature, including anti- 
tuberculosis and anti-fly calendars, has been distributed. 

pl , Foochow. One mission is reported to 

Service " have called the Association physical director 

to meet with their pastors monthly to teach 
them games and stunts which can be used to develop in 
their respective churches a healthy recreational life. The 
Association conducts a training class for play directors 
from the various churches of the city. One church has 
already secured property and equipment for recreation. 
The pastor of that church is coming personally to the 
training class. The foreign and Chinese physical directors 
are giving time to the union university and government 
schools in order to train playground directors and leaders. 
Soochow. "Forty-four mow of land near the heart of 
the city has been leased for an athletic field and playground. 
The Young Men s Christian Association cooperates with 
the government and mission schools in all their athletic 
activities." 



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208 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WOBK 

further development has taken place. Special groups for 
gymnasium work have been ; organized, meeting twice a 
week at the Association. All are r not members but are 
dealt with as a special group. The Young Men s Christian 
Association is just beginning to assist the Sun Company 
in opening meetings on Sundays. These start as social 
meetings at which lectures of various kinds are given." 

Canton. "A call has come to the Association to extend 
its work into the government arsenal employing a thousand 
men who have Sunday off. The religious work secretary is 
in charge of religious work in the Sincere department store, 
employing more than one thousand men. He directs the 
Bible study and devotional meetings in the store. Another 
secretary conducts a Bible class in the largest wholesale 
drug firm of the city. Two secretaries are needed for 
work in other large retail stores, the idea of the managements 
being to establish branches of service for their employees, 
supported financially by the companies." 

Foochoiv. Cooperation is reported in the matter of 
planning a city-wide scheme for industrial, educational 
institutions, in which the Association " will try to occupy 
such sections of the field as will not bring it into competi 
tion with other agencies at work." The Association will 
be a vital constituent in the city-wide work. Manual train 
ing is being inaugurated in the day school and being con 
sidered also for the night school. 

Popular Lecture Canton. "We have had about ten popular 
lectures during the past year attended by 
members as well as students from the government schools. 
These lectures have dealt with government and citizenship, 
literature, health and education. Average attendance has 
been one thousand." 

Tsinan. Lectures are being given especially for the 
returned Chinese Labor Battalions men just back from 
France. Moving pictures are to be used in a series of mat- 
shed lectures for the poorer classes. 

Tientsin. In connection with the Chinese Red Cross and 
the Anti-Opium Society there has been publicity through 
lectures. 












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210 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

the means being used in the city to meet them as well as 
carrying on certain lines of service. There is one night 
school started by the club and two others are contemplated. 
"We are making the club work continuous from year to year 
and expect it ultimately to include nearly all middle and 
upper school students of the city in its membership. Our 
plan is the social appeal coupled with Bible study. This 
club has a summer conference each year whose aim is 
evangelism through the social message." 

Tsinan. The Young Men s Christian Association is now 
promoting a no-fee poor boys school at the Association. This 
meets now only once per week, but hopes later to meet daily if 
possible. The purpose of this activity is with the idea of 
fostering volunteer service on the part of members as well 
as aiding needy boys. 

Foochow. One night school for poor boys is conducted 
by the day school students; another is directed by leaders 
of government school Bible classes. At regular times each 
year the Association aids in the financial campaigns of such 
institutions as the blind schools and orphanages. 

Peking. The students of the social service club have 
been doing systematic poor relief work among the people 
of a special section of the city in which they have planted a 
center. The instruction of poor boys has also been carried 
on there. 

Tientsin. The flood relief service rendered by the 
Association is well known in many sections. Space does not 
permit a report on this work. Several of the secretaries 
were decorated by the Government for conspicuous service 
in their work among the refugees. 

Tientsin. In connection with the flood 
Employment jj f k of 3917-13 an employment 

Service and ... , / 

Thrift bureau was instituted for service to refugees. 

Promotion No specific thrift campaign reported. 

From data submitted, through the teaching 
of English and various commercial subjects in the day and 
night schools the Associations seem to be lifting boys 
and young men to a larger earning capacity. 



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212 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

X 

each Sunday school will return to their respective churches 
where they will be the patrol leaders and assistants. Later 
on scoutmasters will be devoloped in each Sunday school. 
(4) The Young Men s Christian Association will have no 
troop of its own, but will give all its energy and leader 
ship to the development of strong troops in each Sunday 
school. It is hoped to capture the scout movement for the 
Church. Our idea is to make the Sunday school attractive 
to the boy. On Sundays he will have his patrol meeting in 
connection with Bible class and on week days there will be 
inter-patrol and inter-troop competitions at the Young 
Men s Christian Association. We will turn over most of 
our equipment to them irrespective of membership in the 
Association." 

R {Q Tientsin. The Association has been a 

Measures most effective force in the development of the 

Anti-Narcotic Society whose activities have 
been directed toward stamping out the opium evil. One 
of the foreign secretaries of the Association has served as 
secretary of the society. Wide publicity has been given 
to the opium situation, an efficient detective service has been 
maintained and encouraging cooperation with the police 
has been effected. Quarterly reports are being issued 
giving full details about the work done. The headquarters 
of the society are in the Young Men s Christian Association 
building. 

jj { " The Young Men s Christian Association 

Dormitories nas J US ^ completed a survey of the dormitories 

of the inner city in which students of both 
government and private schools are living. This survey 
was a preliminary one yet it showed us some of the needs 
of the students living in these places. A map showing the 
student dormitories and the churches in this section has 
been prepared. There is a big work to be done here in 
providing clean dormitories at small cost especially to 
working men. Such work however requires secretaries 
whom we do not as yet have ready for such tasks." 

Shanghai. One secretary writes, "The Association is 
considering the idea of operating a men s hotel, and we have 




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214 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

financed by the voluntary contributions of large numbers 
of citizens, both rich and poor alike. It is a well-known 
fact that for a number of years one of the foreign 
secretaries of the Peking Association has patiently worked 
on the orphanage project, soliciting financial aid, enlisting 
capable Chinese men to serve on the board of directors 
and in countless other ways building up the institu 
tion. This instance furnishes one of the best examples 
obtainable of the manner in which our Association can 
give itself in unselfish service to a project that blesses and 
enriches the whole community. 

A Report of the Foochow Health and Sanitation Association 
Promoted by Foochow Young Men s Christian Association 

All are familiar with the suddeness and severity of the 
cholera epidemic as it struck Foochow this last summer. 
Unfortunately no organization was prepared to combat it 
and so for several weeks it raged unchecked. Only after it 
caused untold loss of life among all classes in Foochow did 
the Young Men s Christian Association come to the convic 
tion that they should make some effort to educate the people 
in stopping the spread of the disease. The board of 
directors appointed a small executive committee of five 
influential men with Admiral C. P. Sah as chairman. This 
committee was given power to raise funds, coopt other 
members, and cooperate with the police department of the 
government in any way they saw fit. These men met and 
organized their work under five subdepartments. 

A group of ninety-five men from 
(I) Investigation c i mrc i ies schools, and various professional 
or Health ,. .. . , . , . , . , . 

Conditions lines cooperated in making careful investiga 
tion of cholera cases and deaths, methods of 
burial, conditions in shops where food was sold, etc. A total 
of more than two thousand cases of cholera were investigated 
arid reported upon by this group of men. Their reports 
brought out significant facts. For instance, it was found 
that only 167 cases had foreign-trained medical care; 243 
were reported as having no medical care at all. The bal 
ance were treated by old-style Chinese physicians. It was 



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216 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

ways in which he could cooperate with the Chinese com 
mittee and American Red Crdss but very few results were 
obtained. 



(4) The Medical ^" s cons i ste d of four foreign-trained 
Committee * Chinese doctors. Their organization planned 

to erect a detention hospital or adapt Chinese 
temples for their purposes but when the American Red 
Cross took over the supervision of two detention hospitals 
their plan was abandoned. They did carry on inoculation 
free for all classes of people for more than two mouths and 
a total of eight thousand three hundred fifty-two men, 
women, and children have been inoculated. The entire 
expenses of serum, equipment, and other medicine connected 
with this undertaking was financed by the executive 
committee. The doctors rendered their services free 
receiving only reimbursement for their expenses. After 
the American Red Cross hospitals were closed this com 
mittee adapted and repaired a foreign building on the 
New Road which has since served as a detention hospital 
for all kinds of diseases. Coffins have been purchased 
and funeral expenses paid for many poor people. A 
large plot of grave land was bought and has been used 
for burials of those who could not afford to buy their own 
burial ground. In addition to the work of inoculation this 
committee secured large quantities of anti-cholera vaccine 
for sale and distribution throughout the province. 

The entire expenses for the above program 

(5) Finance , , 3 . 

Committee nas been secured in voluntary contributions 

from Chinese in Fooehow. Small sums from 
Chinese in Singapore, Shanghai, and Peking have come in. 
Up to date a total of more than $8,000 Mexican has been 
received in cash and there are still a little over $2,000 
in unpaid subscriptions. All expenses have been carefully 
supervised and when the work is finally closed up next 
month, we hope to have a sufficient balance on hand to be 
prepared for any emergency which may come at a later 
time. A complete report in Chinese together with pictures 
of the work and financial statement as audited will be 
prepared later in the autumn. 






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CHAPTER XXIII 

THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-OPIUM ASSOCIATION 
T. L. Lin 

To a casual observer it has often appeared that the 
Chinese as a whole are born with a national tendency to 
opium smoking. The number of the victims claimed by 
this deadly drug and the amount of wealth wasted through 
it are indeed appalling. And to-day the curse of opium 
seems still with us! Yet no one can ignore the fact that 
side by side with the opium indulgers there have been a 
number of men, China s loyal citizens, who hated opium 
with a righteous indignation and who pitied their unfortu 
nate brothers with a true compassion. Thus Governor Lin 
of Fukien would rather go into banishment than wink at the 
destruction done by opium in Canton. There have been 
corrupt officials and greedy merchants who bought large 
stocks of opium to make money out of it; but China has 
also produced President Hsu Shih-chang and his wise 
advisers who caused the great burning of opium in Shang 
hai. Many officials have no doubt made fortunes out of 
native anti-narcotic bureaus; yet not a few have meant real 
business in the suppression of opium within their own 
jurisdictions. It is the old battle between good and evil. 
To bring aid to the former that it may eventually rout the 
latter, the International Anti-Opium Association of China 
came into being with the beginning of the year 1919. 

The year 1918 marked the end of the ten- 
Wholesale ear con t r act made between Great Britain 

.Burning 01 * , _.. . . , , , 

Opium an d China m 190 i by which opium importa 

tion from India was to be done away within 
ten years. The " Opium Combine," however, succeeded in 
persuading certain functionaries of the Peking Government 
to purchase from them fifteen hundred chests of this drug 
ostentatiously for manufacture of medicine. This audacious 



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220 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

national headquarters of this Association. At the same 
time in Tientsin an Anti-Narcotic Society was formed, 
which, in deference to a larger organization, consented to 
become the Chihli Branch of the International Anti-Opium 
Association. Besides the above-mentioned, the Association 
at present has branches in Moukden, Shantung, Shansi, 
Honan, Hupeh, Hunan, Kiangsu, and Fukien. 

Rev. A. Sowerby, general secretary of 
a. FttlSime 8 Peking head branch and Mr. Y. S. Djang, 
Secretary general secretary of Tientsin, visited Shang 

hai in the early part of July last. At an 
executive meeting the scheme of organizing a national 
committee representative of all branches was discussed. 
They all agreed that with united effort they could extend 
the activities of the Association throughout China more 
effectively than working alone. The Shanghai branch, as 
a first step toward the formation of a national committee, 
employed T. L. Lin, a native of Foochow and an American- 
trained student, as national secretary of this Association. 
The national secretary is "to devote himself to the 
development of the Association in all parts of China, 
serving also as a means of communication between the 
local branches." 

Place of ^ a mee ting held shortly after the 

Organization arrival of the national secretary, with 
the participation of Dr. Wu Lieu-teh, a plan 
was dra\yu up by Shanghai for the organization of such a 
national committee. A copy of their plan was sent to 
Peking and Tientsin for their suggestion and amendment. 
The plan treats each province as a unit, with the Anti- 
Opium Society established in each provincial center as a 
branch of the national association, and local societies in 
different cities and towns as sub-branches to the provincial 
center; hence Tientsin the head of Chihli branch, Tsinan 
that of Shantung, and Taiyuiin that of Shausi. The plan 
also provides a national committee, the members of which 
are to be elected from all provinces. They are to meet once 
a year to decide the policy of the Association and to prepare 
the ways and means to carry it out. To superintend the 
work of the national secretary and his staff, an executive 









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222 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

The fact that an enormous amount of morphia and 
other narcotics is illegally exported from America through 
Japan to China does not escape the attention of this Asso 
ciation. Thus when Dr. Paul Reiusch and Mr. Julean 
Arnold left for America, they were furnished with a care 
fully prepared statement* by the national headquarters 
of this Association with reference to this ignoble traffic. 
They both promised to exert their influence in the United 
States to alleviate this anomalous situation. Promise has 
also been obtained from the Japanese Government not only 
to help in the suppression of the illicit traffic of opium, 
cocaine and morphia with China, but also.to include heroin 
in the banned list. As to the device of sending morphia 
through the mails, M. Picard Destelan has promised the 
Association that he would take up the matter at the Inter 
national Postal Congress next year. 

Action by More recently, in October, the Peking 

Conference of Headquarters presented a statement regard 
ing the fight against opium to Mr. S. Meyers, 
of Commerce wuo was on n * s wa y to Shanghai to attend 
the Conference of British Chambers of Com 
merce in November, and through him requested the 
Conference to grant its support and assistance to this As 
sociation. Consequently by the Conference a resolution was 
passed, "urging that the British Government shall give 
immediate effect to the measures adopted by the Interna 
tional Opium Convention at The Hague in 1912 without 
waiting for ratification of the convention by other countries 
and shall limit the production and export of opium and 
similar drugs to that required for legitimate medical use." 
"Work in China 2. Fighting the Evil in China. The 

Association has been favored with the support 
of the President of China who kindly consented to become 
its patron. He has issued several mandates urging the 
masses to stop poppy cultivation and opium trade, and 
ordering the officials to take a strict hand in dealing with the 
guilty ones. He has introduced a bill to Parliament, effect 
ing heavy punishment on the dealers of morphia. He is 

* Editor s Note. For the statement see Appendix. 



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224 MEDICAL AND PHILANTHROPIC WORK 

The Future The Association has a great hope not 

merely for the futuro of its own mission, but 
above all for the future of China. China is bound to become 
a great nation, and sooner or later the curse of opium will be 
banished from her territory. It is the Association s great 
joy to help China to get rid of the bondage of opium and 
enter into an age of true freedom. The present turmoil of 
China may be a chance for harsh rebuke by China s critics, 
but it by no means disheartens the supporters of the 
International Anti-Opium Association. They will toil 
the harder to make their cause a living one before the 
masses. In the provinces where the authority of the Central 
Government is not respected they will appeal to the 
common sense of the people and teach them that opium is 
sucking out their very life blood. In other provinces they 
will cooperate with the officials, so that the law-abiding 
citizens will cease absolutely the cultivation of poppy and 
the trade in opium. With investigation and publicity on 
one hand, the support of enlightened officials and healthy 
public opinion on the other hand, the Association has full 
confidence in the ultimate success of the struggle and the 
permanent doing away with an evil that has done such 
great harm to China. 



PAKI VI 

UTOATUK1 IN CHINA 
CHAPl*!* XXIV 









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226 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

describes the development Qf literature from the earliest 
times in an interesting and instructive manner. The author, 
Mr. it 56 M. refers on page 29 to Dr. Edkins s book on 
"China s Place in Philology" and approves its contention 
that there must have been a primitive monosyllabic 
language, the parent of Chinese, Egyptian, and other 
ancient tongues. The word J?ij is given as an example. In 
ancient Chinese, it was "bit," in Hindi "bheda," in Hebrew 
"bad," in Latin "pars," and in modern English it appears 
in "separation" and "departure." The author admits that 
thus Chinese is linked with other languages, living and 
dead, and, characteristically claims that his own language 
is the original f j& Jg from which these other tongues 
were derived. One might mention the new dictionary 
issued also by this firm. It is concise and the definitions 
good. The continued demand for new dictionaries shows 
that whatever progress phonetic script may make the day of 
the ideograph has not yet passed. 

War Books Going over a well-known publisher s list 

of new books I remarked, "It is strange that 
so few books were written in Chinese on the War." He 
replied, "We published quite a number of books on the war 
but the British War Information Committee objected to 
them and we withdrew them from circulation." 

This was no surprise to me because I had examined 
some of these books myself and knew that there were more 
than forty of them; all written with a distinctly pro- 
German bias. When this was pointed out to the publishers 
they offered to suppress the books with an alacrity that 
rather suggested that the loss was not their own. It would 
be interesting to discover who provided the originals of 
these books and bore the cost of their translation and 
publication. But the war is over; we shall not rake up 
these unpleasant memories further than to express regret 
that at a critical time China should have been given a push 
toward the camp of her enemies and our congratulations 
that the danger was so happily averted. 

TT (., , . The tendency of Chinese writers to 

Use of Mandarin ,. ., , ^ J ,. , , . 

in Literature discard stiff Wen-li and express themselves in 

current Mandarin has been accentuated a 






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228 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

Now, if "everybody" is to be interested in the affairs of 
1 he state you must present these affairs to "everybody" 
in the language he speaks; therefore much of the literature 
sown broadcast by the students was written in Mandarin. 

TT f iwr, A-, j Th e second is that China is now studying 

Use oi Mandarin _ . i IM. mi ATT^ i- 

in Science Western science and literature. Ihe Wen-li 

scholar is like a worker in mosaic. He has at 
his disposal a heap of ancient gems of literature and these 
he disposes and rearranges to work out the new combinations 
of his changing thought. But the writer who seeks to 
expound science and psychology finds little in the glittering 
heap of literary quotations that will fit into the pattern he 
is working. Words to him must be the antithesis, not of 
other words, but of things. A sentence need not parallel its 
preceding sentence in tone and rhythm but it must mean 
something as definite as an angle in a brick wall and it must 
be incapable of meaning anything else. Elegant Wen-li fails 
here and so the new learning turns to Mandarin. 

-,, Q . The anti-Japanese boycott produced a 

The Student ... ., rn , J , v 

and Politics literature ot its own. The students showed 

themselves very skillful pamphleteers. Many 
of the placards were illustrated with cartoons, some of 
them striking and suggestive. One could not help wishing 
that some of the talent displayed in this campaign could 
be utilized in the preparation of gospel tracts. There was 
a vim and snap about these productions that much of the 
output of our publishing houses sadly lacks. 

A certain number of a magazine issued by 

Sample of ^ s t n( ] en t s contained the followin parable : 

btudent , t ... , , , , 

Literature There wa- once a man who wa much hen 

pecked. His wife was haughty and violent 
and often compelled him to do menial duties but he bore it 
patiently and avoided strife. One day they quarreled about 
some trifling matter and the wife struck her husband a 
resounding blow on the face, leaving the trace of her 
fingers on his cheek. Just then a friend called arid the 
good man, unaware of the tell-tale mark on his face, went 
out to greet him. TJie guest inquired the reason for the dis 
figurement and the husband was forced to confess the 



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230 

Revolutionaries," "Monarchy and Capitalism in Japan," etc. 
The Ladies Journal, j^ -& $| fg, is full of interesting articles 
on women s work in the world and in the home. The Student 
Magazine, H g| f$, begins with a scholarly article on the 
lessons to be gathered from the recent anti- Japanese agitation. 
It argues; (1) that right is indestructible; (2) that the 
redress of wrong is not easy; (3) that union is strength; 
(4) the necessity of patience; (5) the emergency of self- 
consciousuess. A later article is a discussion of two problem 
plays by Strindberg and Bjornson. The author flounders 
out of his depth but the article plainly shows that there is 
nothing young China does not intend to know and nothing 
she regards as outside the range of her criticism. 

The most popular and easily the most influential of 
the magazines is La Jeunesse, ?Jft ff *- This is the organ 
par excellence of young China, of the intransigents! s, of 
those who intend to turn the world upside down and 
remold this sorry scheme of things more nearly to their 
heart s desire. 

Taking up the last issue of this magazine we note that 
the premier article is an essay on pragmatism by Professor 
$j jj|. It extends to fourteen pages of close type. A careful 
reading shows that the author knows his authorities well and 
he illustrates and embellishes his argument with quotations 
from old Chinese and new Western philosophers. 

The argument runs along this line: The 
Cfa^^d vi pragniatists (James, Dewey, etc.) have 
point 2 * changed the fundamental conception of the 

older scientists. Natural laws (gravitation, 
etc.) are no longer regarded as being fixed and immutable. 
They are, hypotheses only, and satisfy us for the present 
until some one shall arise and formulate other and more 
satisfying theories, when we shall abandon those now 
current and adopt the new and better formulae. 

Even mathematical axioms are not to be regarded as 
final truth. Whilst, for practical purposes, we agree that 
the three angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles 
or that two parallel lines never meet, nevertheless there are 
new geometries (Lobatschewsky s) which prove that the 



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232 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

down the fundamental laws of progress, China s sages have 
labored to devise principles of justice and laws with 
which to curb the tierce passions of selfish men. On these 
foundations has been built that civilization which has 
outlasted Babylon and Rome and won the admiration of the 
modern world. 

Now comes Professor Hu and his coadjutors, learned in 
the wisdom of the West, who proceeds quietly to undo the 
"bands," $3, woven with four thousand years of patient 
thought. According to the new philosophy there is no 
Heaven, 5c; no God, _h ifr; no Reason, jl; no Principle, ag; 
no Right, ^; no Wrong, #; no Good, F; no Bad, ^ . There 
is nothing left but a great swollen I the bloated superman. 
Reality is my creation. Truth is my tool. Law is what I 
approve. Right is what satisfies me. 

The Hoi Polloi What will happen when the four hundred 

million common people, M Ifc, understand and 
appreciate this new teaching? To them the taxes they pay 
on salt and laud and wine and tobacco seem real enough. 
Their daily toil, the hunger and cold, are no illusions and 
they will ask what right the rich have to hold their 
possessions or the Mandarins to occupy their office? 
\Vhen the answer is given that "right" no longer exists; 
that it never was more than a figment of a philosopher s 
imagination, then the way will be paved for Bolshevism, red 
ruin, and the breaking up of laws. 

TT*,,, TJ . Professor Hu utterly disagrees with his 

The Idea 01 -_ . J . ? ITT-H- 

God Master on the question ot religion. William 

James, he says, was a sou of the manse and it 
was not possible for him to divest himself of the prejudices 
of his early training. When Dr. James declares that the 
idea of God brings peace and comfort to the heart and 
makes a cosmos of the universe giving us hope that good will 
be the final goal of ill, Professor Hu declares this state 
ment to be very injurious, US ^f ^ #j, and proceeds to state 
his own attitude toward faith in God. The value of 
every idea must be tested before it can be believed. 
Ideas are like checks. You present your check on the 
bank of nature and if it is honored then your idea is 






1 









234 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

but sages arose and taught a better way. In a still more 
remote period no " bond," $33, existed between husband and 
wife and there were no rulers and no ruled. Indeed that 
ideal state still exists among the animals and, to some extent, 
amongst savages. If we must " progress " in this direction 
then the wheel will come full circle and mankind shall be 
once more on a level with the beasts, 



cHArrt.it xxv 

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Two GREAT PERSECUTIONS OK TAOISM AGAINST BUDDHISM. By Chang. 
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OIAPTW XXVI 

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248 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

Sundry Sources That the world s interest in China is still 

growing, the wide range of the Bibliography, 
even though incomplete, will show. There is no way of 
telling where a publication on things Chinese will appear. 
There is no organization as far as we know which keeps up 
a contemporaneous bibliography on China. Such organiza 
tions at the "home base" as attempt a bibliography on 
China do not share their information with the public. 
There is a quarterly list of carefully selected articles and 
books in the International Review of Missions. There has 
been a comprehensive list of books and articles on China, 
past and present, appearing monthly in the Chinese Students 
Monthly. Magazines in China have difficulty in securing 
books on China for review; this is more true of British 
than American publications. There is not in China any 
library center where a complete display of literature deal 
ing with China is available. 

~ . Interest in things Chinese is deepening 

Outstanding -, . -. . f, ,, ,, " . 

jd eas and widening rapidly. Many fascinating 

lines of siuological study are in the focus of 
attention, among which the study of China s material 
resources is prominent. The outstanding problem is the 
relation of China and Japan, a problem in which the world- 
public has vital interests. Western sympathy with China 
is outspoken in very many directions though, it appears, 
still impotent. The commercial and industrial possibilities 
of China stand next in order of emphasis: it is recognized 
that China has both a need to be filled and a contribution 
to make in this respect. In internal matters education 
receives the most attention. This is in accord with the 
genius of the Chinese people, and the increasing importance 
of pedagogy in national uplift. More attention should 
be given to the spiritual achievements and resources of 
the Chinese. There is need, also, of more careful study of the 
effect of Chinese social solidarity on all enterprises initiated 
in China by Westerners or originating in the West. At 
tention should also be given to the growing interest in trade 
and industry with a view of promoting preparation there 
for. An encouraging determination to understand China s 
real self is in evidence. 









< v 



250 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

upon Hie West, which makes it clear China has something to 
give as well as to get. China is not an international beggar. 

Boofes o{ Of special importance and use are the 

Reference Directory of Protestant Missions and a special 

edition of The Map of China. Most of the 
reference books have to do with various problems of 
language study. This is treated from the Moslem, Spanish, 
and Greek viewpoints. The Neic Dictionary of the Com 
mercial Press, gives evidence of being hastily done and 
is thus unsatisfactory. An index to the old China Review 
furnishes a key to a thesaurus of things Chinese. 
Pioneers There are a number of interesting, 

biographical sketches of pioneers. In Robert 
Dollar, a business man of unspendable energy, we have 
one who believed in God as well as business. In A. J. Little 
we have a merchant and student of good faith and 
substantial morals who did much to promote interest in 
China. Edonard Chavannes was a stupendous worker and 
outstanding sinologue. The story of Dr. Jeme Tien-zu, 
China s railway pioneer, introduces us to one who blazed 
the trail for China s transportation problems. In Chang 
C hie n, we have a pioneer reformer. He made his own home 
town, Nantuugehow on the Yangtze, a model town in 
which it is said poverty and idleness are not known. 
Although a Hanliu scholar, he was disinterested and will 
ing enough to work for the community. His life is a good 
study for pessimistic critics of the Chinese. Of ancient 
enterprise the "modern" irrigation system of the Chengtu 
plains is an exhibit. One Li Ping is given credit in one 
article, while Kai Ming in Origin of the K-uanhxiei) Water 
Works, a native minister is called the real "Moses" of the 
system, but not being a Chinese the public credit is given 
to the former man. It is a story of how wits got the better 
of superstition in starting a public enterprise. 

Missionary ^ missionary pioneers two stories are 

Pioneers given. In a voluminous volume, we have 

Hudson Taylor s Relations to the China Inland 
Mission. In the early days his was a case of going over 
the top"; he saw possibilities where others saw hindrances. 



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252 LITERATURE IX CHINA 

who aspire to be poetical in Chinese form, as a hint of the 
real basis of Chinese poetry and music is given therein. 
Studies of China Light on unknown phases, and new light 

on known phases of life in China are here put 
together. In Camps and Trails in China we look through 
the eyes of a scientist at things rugged and wild and share 
with him vivid impressions of sidetracked peoples and 
places. A Naturalist s Jnwneu Across Little Known 
Yunnan reveals rugged phas.-s of China s native beauty, 
it hints also at China s boundless interest to the scientist. 
Travelling in Thibet gives a missionary s impression of 
Tibetan life and customs, sometimes weird, often hard, and 
always pathetic. West China is now almost a Mecca for 
hunters of facts. North Western Szechwan is a story of 
hair-raising experiences met in a study of conditions of life 
in this region. 

The History of Szechuan shows the rise and fall of political 
influences between 618-960 A.D. Some of the causes for 
the truculent Szechwanese spirit are disclosed. One can 
also see how China did for Szechwan what the Westerners 
have done for her in the east. .4 List of 400 of the Most 
Common Proverbs of Szechwan gives an insight into the wit 
of this region. In the way of technical knowledge we have 
the Hydrography of the Yunnan-Tibet frontier, and a list 
of Trees and Shrubs of West China. There are several 
articles on biology, zoology, flora, and fauna. China s 
Mineral Enterprise treats of much besides mining. Prob 
lems arising out of superstition and political intrigue 
with special reference to Japan, are frankly discussed. It 
is a work that many besides mining engineers will appre 
ciate. China Inside Out is a running account of fleeting 
impressions of China which are interesting though a little 
misleading. Some Aspects of Chinese Life and Thought is a 
series of studies of Chinese life seen from personal angles. 
The Land Tax. in China is a thesis of considerable merit 
by a Chinese. The passing of land from common to private 
ownership is shown, and the position of agriculture as the 
basis of national economy is brought out. The fact that 
small land holdings in China and the absence of a landed 
aristocracy have not prevented poverty would make an 



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254 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

gives one the feeling of being strained. The Confucian 
Taoist and Buddhist ideas of the fixation of the soul are 
analyzed. In connection with >l fate and fortune " we read, 
" the whole system of ancestor worship, f&ng-shui, and 
spiritism, implies that after Heaven, Earth, and the Superior- 
Man, the Dead play the most important part. If we sub 
stitute for these four the Solar energy, Earthly Substance, 
Cultural Environment and Heredity it is obvious that the 
Chinese are not so far from the truth." There is also a short 
note on sex in Chinese philosophy, which shows that Chinese 
ideas on this subject are those of medieval Christianity, sex 
impulse in China having been diverted into mental activities. 
In a Note on Head Flattening we read that in the twenty-third 
century B. C. the Chinese practiced this strange custom, 
hence the strange head shapes in pictures of ancient wor 
thies, the most desirable of which was that of a pyramid. 
A Short Lived Republic is an interesting account of the 
mushroom republic of Formosa; though gallantly conceived 
and defended it was brief and futile. In Notes ou Chinese 
Drama and Ancient Choral Dances the rise of the drama in 
China is shown. The first serious stage play was given in 
279 A.D. to perpetuate the abhorrence of a tyrant. The 
only one of the deified heroes of China who appears in 
person in a play is Kwan Yii, the Chinese Mars. No Buddhist 
appears in any stage play. There are five short and inter 
esting articles on Chinese ideas of a future life, which 
reveal a charm of imagination hard to equal. In the 
above studies we are transported into China s past a past 
that has flowed steadily and ceaselessly. Some of the 
subjects treated have to do with things most difficult to 
change. Do we, as a matter of fact, need to change all of 
them? 

Roman and China is stirring more than ever the 

F act imagination of the novelist, who has a tend 

ency to see facts surrounded with an irides 
cent gleam of fancy, and often confuses the two. For 
unknown reasons a short sojourn in China seems to be 
more productive from a literary viewpoint than a long one. 
In Peking Dust, we have a flitting novelist trying to be a 
diplomat in attempts to weave interesting chats out of flying 



. 





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256 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

veil is lifted to show real heart throbs, and a sympathetic 
insight into actual conditions and psychology in out-ot 
the- way places is given. The Comedy of Ignorance shows 
a modern conclusion to a marital arrangement a la ancient 
ideas. Limehouse Nights contains tales of the London under 
world in which transplanted Chinese figure. The stories 
are vivid and at times rankly realistic, but they give 
some idea of the muddy condition of the waters of life 
when neither moral nor racial limitations any longer 
exist: of Civilization the same is true of Westerners in the 
orient. 

The Press The use and abuse of the press in China 

has received attention. In Attitude of the Chinese 
Press To-day the ideas of the Chinese as to Christianity 
are given ; the lack of Christian journalistic leadership 
is also shown. What the Chinese Read To-day is a good 
guide to present literary tastes and tendencies ; though 
literature in China is saturated with Buddhism and 
Confucianism yet Christian literature has a meaning 
and function. A significant outlook on plans for the 
future is given in The Press of China which has had a 
rapid development and is beset with difficulties. Chinn 
and the American Newspaper Editor gives a hint as to what 
American journalism can do to help meet these difficulties. 
China Needs Publicity and to attain this it is suggested that 
a central committee be organized to promote balanced 
publicity about China. 

,-., . Of the present status of Christian 

Christian 

Literature Literature in China, there are dependable sum 

maries: a symposium shows also the think 
ing of Chinese leaders on this subject. The New Christian 
Literature Council in China will stimulate the production of 
new phases of literature and help discover writers. The 
Illiteracy of the Christian Church is in the focus of attention, 
Phonetic Writing of Chinese and plans for the Home Training 
of the Blind shows the process by which these needs will be 
met. The promotion of and cooperation with the Chinese 
Government in one phonetic system is an outstanding 
achievement of Christian work during the past year. 



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258 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

individualistic ; old facts are interpreted from the stand 
point of a foreign fighter for the rights of individuals and 
nations. It is a sign of dilatory recognition on the part of 
the West that the rights of the East are similar to those of the 
West, the only principle that can settle the vexed question 
of East and West. This author uses much acid sarcasm 
with occasional missatements but there is also a vein of 
strict justice in the book. A little more of the idea of " the 
world for mankind" would temper some of his still lop 
sided sentiments. The Spread of Christianity in the Modern 
World shows the place of China in the expansion of Europe 
into Asia, and the contemporaneous philanthropic ex 
pansion of Christianity. Only high lights and outstanding 
personalities in political and missionary work are touched 
upon ; the book shows clearly that the last four hundred 
years have been the great period of world contacts. The 
curve of the change in China s thinking from intensive hate 
of the energetic Westerner to a willing "open door" attitude 
is shown. It is like a map in words, leaving of necessity 
some details a little vague. In above productions and 
articles China is seen from the point of view of the scientist, 
the democrat, the student of industry, racial contact and 
the socialist. 

Chinese Abroad Special attention has been given to the 
penetration of China into the life of the 
world. Out and About London gives an account of London 
"Chinatown," a glimpse into the underworld from 
which even the " glamor of shame" has departed. Chinese 
in Singapore gives an insight into the effect of residence in a 
foreign land upon the Chinese; the author is a little 
pessimistic over the results. Chinese in the Dutch East Indies 
suggests how Chinese abroad can help develop China s 
commercial independence in international commerce. There 
are suggestive sketches of Chinese students in Great Britain, 
the United States, and Japan, where they are learning truths 
about their world neighbors as well as about other things. 
The Experience of a, Chinese Christian Student gives impres 
sions of contact with Christianity; among other things," he 
says, " this helps to create a new idealism for China." In 
Chinese Students and the American Church is a short statement 



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260 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

public opinion in China is seen in the New Chinese National 
Movement which is a Chinese statement of the "passive 
revolution/ A Constructive Plan for China deals mainly 
with the danger of the present commercial situation, and 
asks for an international commission which among other 
things will consider the return of all Chinese territory and 
intrinsic rights." Along this line America could help 
prepare China for complete autonomy. The International 
Development of China is an attempt by an ex-president of the 
Republic to show how to develop a proper market in China; 
it is a proposition to the foreign powers which it is hoped will 
help to do away wilh competition and commercial strife in 
China and the world- To read these articles is to realize that 
China is suffering terribly from hasty diagnoses. A more 
careful study of the real causes of China s condition is badly 
needed. The doctors are many but the remedy is still a 
matter of disagreement. 

Of China s external problems the same 
International . . -, . 

Relationships things are being often repeated by many 
people. As a compilation of causes which 
have led up to the present debacle the two volumes of 
International Relations of the Chinese Empire cannot be 
surpassed. China could not have been left alone to become 
a cyst in the life of the world, hence the agressive expansion 
of the West into China was inevitable; but it is a game that 
sadly needs a revision of rules. The scramble for wealth has 
been heretofore the main motive. That a change mu^t take 
place in this regard is assumed in a resume of Foreign 
Financial Control in China, an attempt to show how to 
make China safe for finance. Though fair, this book is in 
fluenced by foreign interests as much or more than by 
Chinese. For the Westerner China is still more a matter 
of safe exploitation than of human welfare. The word 
"guidance" would be better in the title than "control," 
which just falls short of recognizing China s right to self- 
development. But the question of questions is the relation 
of Japan and China. Japan is, of course, an apt pupil of 
her Western predecessors. She has no new methods. But 
since she is crowding her exemplars as well as China, she 
is made the target of the world s indignation against 




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262 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

Japan and the Industrial Development of China. If Japan Re 
fuses is a strong discussion of what will happen unless Japan 
yields to some extent. The author does not believe that China 
can take care of Japan s overflow of population; her own 
increases too fast. China as a factor in the peace of the 
world and her relations to the League of Nations is seen 
to be vital ; at the Peace Conference China was both 
disillusioned aud moved by a new determination to self- 
assertion. The outward influence of democracy in China 
is gradually changing her, and the fact that China has a 
future gift to make to democracy are paints well brought 
out. The status of the foreigner in China is changing. 
The Principles and Practice of Extra-territoriality in China is a 
short but enlightening treatment of this problem. Extra 
territoriality, the author says, has not been forced on 
China; he says also that a law controlling the legal relations 
of Chinese and foreigners should be compiled. The need of 
care in the selection of people sent to China is indicated in 
Western Characteristics Needed in China. The Relation of 
America to China seems to be much in evidence; this is a 
typical Western view that China is too weak to stand alone! 
American Policy in China states that China is financially 
solvent though in a financial muddle, but reconstruction 
must not be left to Japan. The United States should take 
the lead in iuitiating a new policy based on fair play and 
tbe rights of other people. Principles for Which America and 
England Should Stand in China indicate a growing apprecia 
tion of internal ional cooperation. An Outline of the Far Fast 
attempts to give some reason for the incoherence of China, 
one of its pressing difficulties. The present debacle 
culminated twenty-five years ago in the loss of Korea ; to 
help we must provide a Fair Chance for China. In Our 
Tariff Question are suggested China s suppressed interests 
and a determination to get them back. The Chinese are 
thinking more deeply than ever, and with a better knowledge 
of the West and its principles. In the untying of this 
tangle the Christian movement must take a part or it may 
be charged with being impotent to produce international 
justice as well as to stop the war. 



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264 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

forestry, flour, minerals, railway timber, silk, fishing, 
vegetable dyes, iron and steel, department stores, timber 
rafts, salt wells, and amusement are all treated in in 
forming and often fascinating articles. They are kaleido 
scopic views of Chinese industrial life which show an 
encouraging and unusual attempt to study China. Western 
writers no longer are simply interested in dumping things 
on China; they are learning studying her latent possibilities. 
China is thus looked on as a possible world partner. A short 
technical study of several industries is given by a Chinese 
expert in Chemical Industry in Kwantung Province. The 
Western scientist in China speaks in Thirty Thousand 
Miles in China and briefly relates the physical features 
and monuments of China. To him the solution of China s 
physical problem largely depends on education. The 
Contemporary Chinese Drama shows how Western ideas are 
being merged, at least in some places, with Chinese ideas 
on the subject. The question of Forests and floods in China 
is treated by several. That they are inseparable a Chinese 
expert attempts to show, though some others do not agree 
with him. Another shows that there is a greedy market for 
all the forest material that China can produce. And last, 
one treats of some of China s Contributions to the World and 
shows appreciation of the fact that China can give as well 
as get. In an article which is in the main a resume of the 
opinions of others, we are reminded of the Distinguishing 
Characteristics of Chinese Civilization. It is evident that China 
can help in promoting world character as well as world 
comfort. 

Religion Research into Chinese Superstitions is the 

only book on the subject of religion we have 
seen. It treats in an interesting way of the common 
religious ideas and activities with here and there a bit of 
deistic philosophy. It is a book of the common round of 
religious life in China. In it we can also glean something 
of the social values back of Chinese religious life. Letters to 
a Missionary deals with the religious ideas of a certain group 
of Westerners in China. It is written by an old China 
hand and is a caustic attack on the idea of eternal 
punishment. It is woefully weak in that it does not 



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266 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

I 

theologian, of remarkable perspicuity. In Wu-Fai-Shan 

and the Dalai Lama it is shown that a mundane god though 
mysterious appears quite human when seen close and 
dwindles under the light of ordinary acquaintance. Old 
and new sanctions are taken up in The Moral Sanction in 
China,, emphasis being laid upon public opinion in this 
connection, though the question is admitted to be still 
unsettled. Strange studies and ideals are given in Fancies, 
Follies and Falsities which denotes the intellectual stream of 
dim vagaries in which many Chinese live. The Contribution 
of Christianity to China is treated in two articles. One states 
it has all to give, a strained view; the other claims that 
Christianity being a religion of knowledge and power, will 
promote the knowledge of God, thereby making a gift of 
the greatest magnitude. We must make reference to 
a lack of recognition of the spiritual forces, achievements, 
and possibilities of the Chinese, a line of intensely profitable 
future study. 

Moslems A Chinese Moslem Tract shows how a 

Confucian man accepts Islam and indicates 
that there have been some attempts to unite the two. 
The Mohammedans in China is an article published in 1866, 
but one that, with minor modifications, gives still interesting 
information on Mohammedanism. The Present Condition 
of Mohammedanism is a somewhat pessimistic statement by a 
modern Chinese Moslem of the reasons why Islam does not 
grow like Christianity a sign of the times. In Chinese 
Mohammedanism there are given some facts and thoughts 
bearing on the beliefs of Moslems, that have been culled from 
Chinese works written by Moslems. Not so much attention 
however has been given to this problem as last year. 

Moral Problems Q actual moral conditions in China as 
a whole, little is known, though a careful 
survey has been made in Peking. Of the chaotic state of 
fifteen provinces brief mention is made in Lawlessness in China. 
Though a minority of the people only are affected, yet the 
power of unregulated forces and desires is seen to be bad 
enough. One of the heaviest loads is the Soldier Curse in 
China. China s militarism is of a character all its own. 






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268 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

on Chinese social efforts and how necessary Christianity is 
to a complete social and religious life. A Social Effort in 
Yangtzepoo describes an attempt to apply Christain sociology 
in an actual community. Much more is being done along 
social lines in China just now than was talked about in the 
current year ; but it is not quite so much in the focus of 
attention as some other subjects. 

Chinese Women It would appear that under proper con 

ditions Chinese women find it easy to throw 
over old customs. Concerning Hunanese Women gives some 
old Chinese ideas of women. In Women s Work possibilities 
of Chinese women as leaders in a new world are shown. 
This is further illustrated in The Personal Work Movement 
and the Young Women s Christian Association in China. Work 
for Chinese Women shows the effect of social changes upon 
women in China and the growing number that need to be 
trained for self-support. Educationalists must help 
prepare these women for clerical and professional work. 
The ebb and flow of Government Education for Girls in China 
is shown, and new attitudes about women given. Women in 
China Today is the voice of the Chinese women, showing some 
of the virtues, weakness, and needs of Chinese women who 
are planning now to enter into the " sisterhood of nations." 
The overlooked importance of Chinese women in Christian 
work is clearly shown in The Place of Women in the 
Protestant Missionary Movement in China. Another phase of 
Uplifting the Women of China is seen in the work of the 
Young Women s Christian Association. While not yet 
numerous, modern Chinese women are beginning to exert a 
tremendous influence. 

Education A S to methods of work in China, educa 

tion appears to have the lead in the thought 
of the workers. Some Problems of Higher Education ivith 
Particular Reference to Medical Training shows the importance 
of correcting the old mental attitude mental indifference to 
new situations on the part of medical students. In Aims to 
be Sought in the Christian Educational System in China we have 
problems and solutiond put together in a way very few 
missionaries find time to do. While a little too sweeping 






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270 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

longer a " pacer": in many parts of China it is running 
neck and neck with Chinese education. While we have 
much of the old formal education in China, yet speaking 
generally, real progress is being made. There is appearing 
a merging of Western pedagogical theory and experience 
which promises some real solutions to educational needs 
in China. It is evident also that the character of Christian 
education in China has already changed. Life needs and 
not intellectual gymnastics now determine most of its 
policies. 

^ n Notes on Chinese Medicine some strange 
and original treatment of, and terms used 
for, venereal diseases are given. These terms should he 
useful to those dealing with social diseases. A Chinese 
Chemist s Shop lists remedies for strange diseases; old ideas 
on medical treatment are still very prominent. Chinese 
Superstitions Relative to Childbirth gives some queer notions 
of a natural function. Smallpox in China shows that one 
hundred years before Jenner s discovery, cow fleas were 
used in China for the prevention of smallpox. That new 
ideas are growing is seen in The Awakening to the Value of 
Scientific Training which gives the bill presented in the 
Kiangsu Provincial Assembly, to ensure that medical 
practioners are qualified by having to pass a proper ex 
amination. A need likely to be overlooked is brought out 
in The Needs and Problems of Small Hospitals in China. Some 
good suggestions are made with regard to future medical 
mission work in Scope of Medical Mission Work. Generally 
speaking, however, this subject has not received much 
attention during the year. Medical work appears to be in 
a transitional stage. 

Ch istian ^ ie China Church Year Book (Chinese) 

Movement an( ^ the CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK are surveys 
of leading events and ideas in connection 
with the Christian movement in China. Both are rapidly 
growing in value; there are no books published where one 
can get such an acquaintance with Christian work in 
China as these. Missionaries who do not read the CHINA 
MISSION YEAR BOOK should be inoculated with some sort of 



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272 LITERATURE IN CHINA 

modern ideas is graphically described in A Buchaneering 
Grandmother. How even priests are won, A Buddhist 
Priests Gives up His Job will show. A Camouflaged 
Prescription shows how a Christian daughter-in-law was 
persecuted for her faith. A most suggestive report is given 
under the title Student Christian Association of the Canton 
Christian College, which shows how students can be active along 
Christian lines. One or two unusual instances of Self-Support 
are given, in which cases all connection, with foreign 
support was cut off for the time being. This is a vital ques 
tion which has slipped into the background. Some general 
and important phases of this problem are touched upon. 
In Training of the American Missionary to China evidence is 
given to show that specialists will be needed more and more 
as time goes on. The report of F. K. Sanders also 
deals trenchantly with this subject. In Some Impressions of 
Missions in China emphasis is laid upon the danger as well as 
the advantages of deputations, which often go away with 
half-baked opinions of mission work, doing harm thereby. 
China, World Democracy, and Missions is in the main an 
appeal for education and the place of some specific schools 
therein. Your Chinese Neighbour calls attention to the needs 
of those who live in "Chinatown." Can True Patriotism 
be Developed in China? indicates that some of the resentment 
against foreign exploitation may be a nucleus for the wider 
spirit of patriotism. Is China Worth Helping? is really a plea 
for foreign cooperation, mainly along financial lines. The 
Development of Church Order in Connection uith the Work 
of the China Island Mission is an interesting account of how a 
cooperative movement has solved the problem of working 
out denominational ideas. But we need some one to take a 
bird s eye view of the Christian movement in China and 
summarize it helpfully. 

Si nso j The present period of crumbling in- 

Progress stitutions in China has caused a wave of 

:, pessimism. "China is hopeless" is the 

( i.weary cry often heard, therefore China needs to have 
^everything done for her. To show that hopefulness is 
Bpossible, we have put together, as an antidote to pessimism, 
a few signs of progress culled from other books and articles. 















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276 MISCELLANEOUS 

missionary s desire is realized. For this reason attacks are 
often made upon Confucianism or Buddhism that are based 
upon ignorance and fail to use elements of truth that are 
as true when uttered by a Confucianist as when upon a 
Christian s lips. 

Equally important is it to display a 

Need of sympathetic spirit in dealing with China s 

bympathetxc ,. . 

Understanding religions. Even those zealous workers, whose 

crass ignorance of what they are discussing 
is appalling, must acknowledge that their own ancestors are 
as responsible for China s ignorance of God as are the early 
Chinese who received no Christian revelation and whose 
gropings after God have been pathetic rather than repre 
hensible. 

, . The spirit of constructiveness rather 

Emphasis on , t . , . , , . ,, 

Positive Truths than or destruction is more desirable in the 
approach than most believe. Ridicule and 
learned proofs of the superiority of Christianity and the 
attempt to destroy belief in the best in Chinese religions are 
somewhat common; too little is attempted in the way 
of emphasis of positive truths found germiually in China 
and fully developed in Christianity. 

~, R . The missionary s attitude should be one 

Danger 6 f deep concern for the inquirer s listlessness 

regarding indigenous religion and his igno 
rance concerning Christianity. Nothing in life is more 
vital, and for a person to be apathetic as to a dominating 
religion is deplorable indeed. Such concern must be 
heartfelt on the part of the missionary and should spring 
from an appreciation, begotten of study and from actual 
testimony of believers in China s religions, of their 
hollowness and inability to satisfy and to save. 



Th S i ti al * s l ve >" ar "d if John 3: 16 is 

Approach " really the heart of the Gospels, it is obvious 
that the spirit of approach must be that of 
sincere Christian love. The human heart hungers for love, 
and there is little enough of this to be found in China 
practically none in Confucianism and Taoism, and only a, 










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276 MISCELLANEOUS 

missionary s desire is realized. For this reason attacks are 
often made upon Confucianism or Buddhism that are based 
upon ignorance and fail to use elements of truth that are 
as true when uttered by a Confucianist as when upon a 
Christian s lips. 

Equally important is it to display a 

Need of sympathetic spirit in dealing with China s 

oympatnetic , -n ii i i i 

Understanding religions. Even those zealous workers, whose 

crass ignorance of what they are discussing 
is appalling, must acknowledge that their own ancestors are 
as responsible for China s ignorance of God as are the early 
Chinese who received no Christian revelation and whose 
gropings after God have been pathetic rather than repre 
hensible. 

E . . The spirit of constructiveuess rather 

Positive Truths than of destruction is more desirable in the 
approach thau most believe. Ridicule and 
learned proofs of the superiority of Christianity and the 
attempt to destroy belief in the best in Chinese religions are 
somewhat common; too little is attempted in the way 
of emphasis of positive truths found germinal ly in China 
and fully developed in Christianity. 

~, . The missionary s attitude should be one 

The Real , ,, J ,, . , . 

Danger ^ deep concern tor the inquirer s listlessness 

regarding indigenous religion and his igno 
rance concerning Christianity. Nothing in life is more 
vital, and for a person to be apathetic as to a dominating 
religion is deplorable indeed. Such concern must be 
heartfelt on the part of the missionary and should spring 
from an appreciation, begotten of study and from actual 
testimony of believers in China s religions, of their 
hollowness and inability to satisfy and to save. 

Th S i ti al If " God is love," and if John 3 : 16 is 

Approach " really the heart of the Gospels, it is obvious 
that the spirit of approach must be that of 
sincere Christian love. The human heart hungers for love, 
and there is little enough of this to be found in China 
practically none in Confucianism and Taoism, and only a 



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278 MISCELLANEOUS 

clue to the unseen, may be the starting point of a most 
helpful presentation of its and our Christian views as to true 
blessing as contrasted with ordinary views. (Of. Revela 
tion 3: 17, 28.) The desire for prolonged life, evidenced 
by the oft-repeated Taoist phrase, Ctiang sh&ng pul lao, is 
an invitation, so to speak, to present our doctrine of eternal 
life. The Tao T6 Ching s doctrine of the Tao, so many- 
sided and confusing, for that very reason is fruitful in 
comparisons and contrasts with Christian teachings 
concerning Him who was not only the Tao, but also the 
Truth and the Life all the avowed objects of Taoist 
search. The omnipresent, ever active, always unperturbed 
Tao is the "rest" which in Matthew 11: 28-30 is so allur 
ingly set forth, far more attractively than the Taoist Wu 
Wei. The spiritual and profoundly mystical character 
of the Tao Te Ching is another aspect of Chinese religion 
not so well manifested in any other canonical book. 

2, Confucianism, the best known and 

of Contact in most discussed of tlie Tllree Religions, 
Confucianism abounds in parallels and common points of 
ethical accord. A few items of approach 
are the following, among many that will occur to any 
student of the system.* 

The true kuei-chu, or compass and square, of Confu 
cianism, its improperly called "Silver Rule," may be 
a starting point; and when seen in its positive import, 
though negative in form, it and its underlying shu, reci 
procity, may be compared with our Golden Rule. The 
constantly quoted wu lun (the five relations) of Chinese 
social life may be discussed with the equally important 
omission of a sixth, or rather the first, of all human 
relations, that of man to his God who would have all men 
related immediately to Him, without the interposition of 
the imperial worship and the emperor high priest, the 
only intermediary of Confucianism. The earlier Chinese 



* See the present writer s report, Presenting Christianity^ in Con 
fucian Lands, pp. 100-118, published by the Board of Missionary 
Preparation, New York City. 






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280 MISCELLANEOUS 

work and who may do so for countless transmigrations still. 
Here the continuous work of a deeper salvation, which 
nineteen Christian centuries witness to in a multitude of 
nations and peoples through the living presence of a 
spiritual Christ, may be shown as a very real deliverance 
that every man may himself experience in power. 

The foregoing are only scraps of what might be said 
upon this subject had not the prescribed limits of this 
article been already passed. Yet they will point out a line 
of study and of practice which may well be tried by those 
who desire to meet the believers in Chinese religions 
scarcely a man will be met who is not a believer in all three, 
rather than exclusively in any one of them upon their own 
grounds and in building upon these beliefs and upon the 
sure teachings of the Christian Scriptures the perfect 
superstructure of the Christian life to which the foregoing, 
as is indicated by the word " approach " of our title, is but 
the preliminary stage. In the carrying on of the process 
of Christian teaching, other modern points of emphasis, 
especially the principle of the " project method," may be 
profitably employed. Yet no method can in any way 
detract from the centuries-old experience of the Christian 
believer whose salvation may have been worked out by the 
individual, yet only through the working in him of that 
salvation which is in Jesus Christ. 









aXTONTH HOOD MUOAI* AT CMAMOTm HUMAN 



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282 MISCELLANEOUS 

possibility of an outsider like myself criticizing, that the 
cleanliness of the camp was such that I have seen neither 
mission school nor hospital to compare with it (I lived for 
a week in August inside the camp as the general s guest; in 
July, I spent much of every day for a week inside the camp 
and on neither occasion did I notice the slightest offensive 
smell near the kitchens or anywhere else; the latrine 
arrangements were much better than anything I have come 
across for a number of men in China) I will confine myself 
to the one question that overwhelmed all else in my two 
visits: How could the best arrangements be made for the 
baptism of the soldiers and officers who were desirous of 
entering the Church ? 

Men Clamoring ^ ia< ^ near( ^ ^ ^ ne difficulties in which 

to Be Baptized two f mv Wesleyan Methodist colleagues 
had been involved at Wusueh when the 
brigade was stationed there for a short time: the attendance 
at our chapel was such that there was hardly room for the 
ordinary members. I had an example of the very same sort 
of thing while I was at Chaugteh. I was asked to conduct 
the morning service at the Holiness Mission. Some twenty 
officers and men were received on trial for baptism. The 
consequence was that the church was inconveniently 
crowded. I had already been asked whether I would baptize 
some of the men, and at first I thought it an altogether 
sufficient reason to answer that I was merely a passing 
guest, that I had no opportunity of preparing the men for 
baptism, and should have none of teaching them anything 
afterwards. Although there are five churches working in 
Changteh, it so happens at the present juncture that there 
are not five ordained clergymen living in the town. Things 
came to a climax when I visited the town of T aoyuan 
which is situated thirty miles (ninety li) farther up the 
river Yuan and where one regiment (t luin) of the brigade 
is stationed. On the Monday morning that we spent 
there the three of us each conducted simultaneous meetings 
held in three centers at each of which nearly two hundred 
men were present. I preached in the Presbyterian chapel, 
the only Protestant church working in the city and at 
present working without a resident ordained minister. The 



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284 MISCELLANEOUS 

orders called men out of their beds at midnight for trial 
drills at that hour of the night. He had never smelled wine 
or tobacco. No form of gambling was ever thought of. He 
had conducted one week s mission for all classes in the city 
and in the intercourse which he had been able to have with 
men who were not connected with the church he had asked 
for information as to the vices of the soldiers and had 
received the same answer from all; he could get no ground 
of complaint from any one. Would the statement if made 
in our home papers be believed that nine thousand soldiers 
had been quartered in a city for over a year and that not a 
single case of whoredom had been known? 

At my first visit, I had myself made some 
Prompted by inquiries as to such lower motives prompt- 
Motives i n o to a desire to be baptized as would be 
conjured up by anybody. The soldiers 
themselves laughed at the questions. Entrance to the 
church let no man off his drills, gave no man any advantage 
whatever in his dealings with his superiors, gave him no 
expectation of promotion. The men also denied that any 
unfair pressure had been brought to bear upon them. They 
acknowledged the deep desire of such of their officers as were 
Christians to see them become such; but the desire was only 
shown at services at which the officers spoke or prayed, or 
in Bible classes attendance at which was entirely voluntary. 
Mr. Shen completely confirms this evidence also. 

In a Quandary ^ did not require a moment s considera 

tion from me to see that the worst of all 
attempts to solve the problem would have been anything 
like a rivalry amongst the churches working at Changteh. 
1 recognized at once that if it came to a question of baptiz 
ing these men myself, I should feel much freer to do 
so as a visitor apart from the churches at Changteh 
than I should have, had the brigade been quartered at 
Changsha and I been merely one of the seven or eight repre 
sentatives who would have had equal possibilities with me 
in the city where I live. The only possible solution I 
could think of was for some ordained man to go and live 
in the camp. The only man I knew who could tackle 







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286 MISCELLANEOUS 

Would these members retain their Christianity if they were 
to move to other neighborhoods where they would have 
none of the privileges of public worship? The answer that 
comes from all experience is that some would and some would 
not. No pastor of any church would deliberately go 
through the list of his church members and pick out those 
who would and those who would not stand such a test. I ven 
ture to say that the soldiers of the Sixth Mixed Brigade have 
one big advantage over their civilian brethren: they know 
the value of obedience. The way these men answer ques 
tions about fidelity to their Lord differs markedly from the 
usual way in which such answers are given. The best style 
of answer that a civilian gives is an answer that shows he 
has counted the cost of obedience. I venture to describe 
these soldiers as answering in the style of men who have 
utterly discounted the "cost" of obedience because they 
know the joy that is set before the obedient. It is purely a 
personal opinion when I say that I should expect a much 
larger proportion of any hundred soldiers whom Mr. Shen 
has baptized to remain Christians to the end of their days 
than I should of any hundred whom I have baptized who 
might be exposed to the difficulties that must come to many 
of them when they leave the brigade for home. I have 
no more hesit;rtion than Mr. Shen in believing that these men 
ought to have been baptized. God save all their comrades. 



CMAFTW XXIX 







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288 MISCELLANEOUS 

Scriptures for ^ ^ s gf nera Uy admitted on all Moslem 

Moslems 8 fields that " the distribution of God s Word 

is the method par excellence " to quote Dr. 
Zwemer. The publication by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society of two diglot Gospels, St. Matthew and St. John, in 
Arabic and Chinese, priced so low as to bring them within 
the reach of all, supplies a long-felt want, and should give 
a great impetus to the circulation of the Scriptures among 
the Moslems. It is much to be desired that the society will 
see its way to extend this most valuable help, by publishing 
Genesis, St. Luke, and the Acts, in this attractive style. 
Chinese Efforts The past year has seen increased interest 

taken by the Chinese Church in their Moslem 
neighbors. Not all districts can, however, report thus 
favorably. In some centers, apathy and indifference 
die hard, and few volunteer for such work. But there are 
several places where a change has been clearly seen. The 
old belief (a most unscriptural one), that Moslem work is 
hopeless so far as actual results that can be seen is concerned, 
is giving place to a truer, more healthy view that Moham 
medans can be won for Christ. That this is so is proved by 
the yearly additions to the Christian Church, as reported 
from several provinces, where individual Moslems have 
found the way of peace. The Chinese Church should be 
encouraged to develop work among the Moslems all over the 
field. Herein lies the true solution of the problem. " How 
are Moslems to be effectively reached?" There are not a few 
important centers where there is no organized work for 
Moslems. The Church in China should take up this work 
intrusted to her by the Lord of the Harvest. 
New Methods The following methods are by no means 

new in general work, but are perhaps new 
in Chinese Moslem work. Some might well be tried in other 
centers than those which have reported them. (1) Lectures 
to Moslems on Biblical characters with the use of the 
stereopticon lantern. (2) Opening evening classes for the il 
literate, with the Bible as a textbook. (3) Special promises 
in Moslem suburbs, in one case these have been kindly 
offered by a well-to-do follower of Islam. (4) Opening a 
dispensary in a Moslem district. 



TX. 

I 



(S) 









CHAPTER XXX 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN MANY LANDS 
MISSION WORK IN CHINA 

F. J. Hopkins 

The Name Christian Missions in Many Lands are 

sometimes called the Plymouth Brethren 
Mission. The above appellation, or indeed even that of 
" Brethren" as a denominational title is, on very proper 
grounds, objected to; anything savoring of denomination- 
alism is repugnant. That is to say, while recognizing the 
significance of the saying of our Lord " one is your master 
even Christ, and all ye are brethren," we view this last word 
as applying equally to all God s children and repudiate the 
use of it as a sectarian title commencing with a capital 
letter, and particularly with the addition of the name of a 
certain township. 

The late George Miiller of Bristol, Eng- 

No Home , -. , , . , . ... . 

Board " land, severed Ins connection with a missionary 

society to Jews because he did not feel at 
liberty to make his Christian service subject to the control 
of a committee. He felt that his responsibility was directly 
to the Lord and not to men. When men guarantee financial 
support they naturally claim to exercise control of the 
missionary s activities. These principles represent our 
missionary policy. Our workers come to China without 
any promise of support from men, they make their needs 
known only to God and they are supplied. Thus we are 
thoroughly independent to go where we believe He sends 
and to do what we believe He teaches. Being bought 
with a price we refuse to become bond-servants of men 
(1 Corinthians 7:23). 

Finances It is nevertheless true that a few brethren 

at Bath, Glasgow, New York, Australia, New 

Zealand, and elsewhere give themselves to the task of 












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292 MISCELLANEOUS 

his needs were met partly by his owii labor and partly by 
the contributions of his friends at Philippi and elsewhere; 
while other laborers quite scripturally as Paul himself 
allows were supported entirely by such gifts. 

Provinces in ^ n China we have some ninety-two 

which at Work workers in six provinces. 

In the province of Chihli, 30; Shantung, 
20; Kiangsi, 36; Kiangsu, 2; Fukien, 2; Kwangsi, 2. 

They come from England, Scotland, 

which Th? Ireland, Wales, Canada, Australia, New 

Gome Zealand, and the United States of America. 

Most of the workers are directly engaged 

in purely evangelistic work. 

I D Chihli there are six stations. Work 
is chiefly among the Chinese but the 
Mongols are not neglected. Our brethren endeavor to 
reach the Mongols by circulating the Mongolian Gospel 
portions, Gilmour s reedited Catechism and gospel tracts. 
To scatter these among the Mongols, longer and shorter 
preaching and colportage itinerations are made, visiting 
markets, theaters, annual fairs, and big centers of 
population. 

Chaoyaugfu, which our brethren now work, was 
formerly the city where Gilmour lived and worked during 
the last five or six years of his life and where he died. 

Shantung ^ u Shantung the work is confined to the 

northeastern promontory. There are six 
stations, one of which has recently been opened. At Wei- 
haiwei, on the island, there is a mission press, and on the 
mainland a girls boarding school. 

Beside the ordinary station work the markets and fairs 
held regularly within the district are visited, Gospel 
portions sold, and much literature circulated and the gospel 
told forth. 

I D Kiangsi we have twelve main stations. 
At Jinchowfu and Fengsin our brethren, 
besides the ordinary station work, have gospel tents which 



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294 MISCELLANEOUS 

In this way many hamlets are visited during the day, 
and at each place an opportunity has been given to the 
people to hear the message by lip and pen. 

Idol festivals are held at various times and various 
places in and around the city (within twenty-five li) each 
year; with a party of Chinese helpers we visit the temples 
and near by hold gospel services and scatter literature. 

Special gospel literature is prepared and circulated 
at these gatherings. 

Work for Women f n the cit ^ 7 at three different Centers 

and Children meetings are held for women and children 
several times a week. 

Visiting in the homes is regularly done, also a meeting 
held in the homes of the Christians week by week. 

Once a mouth a special children s service is held, 
organized by a few of the Christian lads in the boys school, 
they themselves going on the streets with flags and inviting 
the children to come in. 

The boys school is only a day school but there is also 
a boarding school for girls, the " Gracie Kingham Memorial 
School," in memory of the dear child who with her parents 
was massacred in the city in February, 1906. 

TU, .< , r Special classes are held for instructing 

methods ot _ * j j i u 

Instruction believers and inquirers during the week be 
sides the Sunday school classes. 

Bible classes and prayer meetings are held, also 
classes to teach illiterates to read both in the character and 
phonetic script. On each feast day conferences are. held, 
when ten- or five-minute addresses are given on a subject 
chosen beforehand. 

The Christian men, young and old, come well prepared 
so that it is difficult to find time for all to speak. The 
addresses are interspersed with plenty of hymn and chorus 
singing. 

The Servic- ior "^ our ac ^ v ities are with one object to 

Worship win souls for Christ and to enable them to 

worship God intelligently. On Lord s days 



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CHAPTER XXXI 

THE ASSOCIATED MISSION TREASURERS IN CHINA 
A. E. Claxton and L. M. Bocfcer 

The handling of mission money in China presents 
problems in finance which are very interesting 1 . Imagine 
distributing four million dollars a year all over a coun 
try which has no uniform money standard, no national 
banking system, no adequate government, and if we except 
the Chinese Post Office, limited transportation facilities. 
This was the task last year of six of the general treasurers 
of mission boards in China, who pooled their interests in 
the organization. 

Mission finance was brought to a highly organized 
condition by the Roman Catholic Church long centuries 
ago. Evangelical and free churches have carried on 
Christian propaganda in non-Christian countries in com 
paratively recent times, beginning with the Baptist Mis 
sionary Society in 1792, the London Missionary Society in 
1795, and the Church Missionary Society in 1799. 

Each of the many missionary societies formed then 
and since has done the best it could with its own financial 
problem without concerning itself very much, if at all, 
about what the others were doing. It was not till the 
second year of the World War of 1914-18 that the idea 
which had been simmering in the minds of certain mission 
aries for several years took shape and crystallized in a new 
effort to combine forces and form a treasurers association 
in Shanghai. This association became concrete in Novem 
ber, 1916, by the voluntary and tentative union of eight 
societies iu what is now coming to be well known as the 
"A. M. T." 

Mr. Edgar K. Morrow of the Methodist 
E P isc P al Church, Mr. C. M. Myers of the 
Presbyterian Church (North), with Mr. A. 
L. Greig of the London Missionary Society, 






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298 MISCELLANEOUS 

staff includes three stenographers, six Chinese and Eurasian 
accountants, one Chinese shipping clerk, a mail and filing 
clerk, two office boys, and three coolies. 

c A central account is kept in special 

oystem ot . . . ., ,. ? , 

Accounting books. Ihe receipts and disbursements or 
all the associate missions are posted daily, 
and before closing, as in banks, a daily balance is ascer 
tained and verified. While the accounting methods of the 
different missions are not uniform, because the requirements 
of the boards vary, standardized accounting forms are used 
as far as possible. It is hoped that in due course, after the 
proposed finance survey , the home boards may be induced 
to unify their requirements. 

Individual Approximately twenty-five hundred ac- 

Accounts counts appear on the books at the present time. 

Upwards of five hundred overseas passages 
were booked by the association in the course of the past 
twelve months. Insurance business during the same time 
done for missions and missionaries covered policies amount 
ing to Mex. $2,194,137. Out of consideration for business 
firms the association has not advertised or pushed this depart 
ment and it only insures mission property. The total value 
of mission property in China is unknown, and no one knows 
just what percentage of it is insured, though obviously it 
all ought to be. In course of time this branch would be 
likely to develop into a land and title office for all missions. 

A visitor has published his impressions as follows: 
Take the lift to the top floor at No. 9 Hankow Koad, 
Shanghai, and you find yourself in one of the busiest 
spots on the mission field. Jingling telephones, rattling 
typewriters, hurrying messenger boys, may not look like 
the mission field, but the activities that center on that floor 
are among the most important in all the Christian crusade 
in China." 



Foreign and ^ ie sa ^ e ^ exc l ian e dn & the banking 

Local Exchange represent the two biggest items handled by 

the association at present. They involve 

conditions which are practically unknown to the average 












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300 MISCELLANEOUS 

more per dollar. What this represents on the total of 
business done, and of money dealt with (about $4,000,000 
annually ) may be easily reckoned. If there were no other 
argument to justify the uses of the association, the economy 
on this matter alone would be sufficient to satisfy econo 
mists in missionary expenditure that the association is worth 
while. The greatest variation in the rate of exchange 
occurs between gold and the Shanghai tael. The rate 
between the Shanghai tael and the Mexican dollar is fairly 
uniform. Procedure in securing local currency by the 
sale of gold is as follows : 

1. The sale of gold drafts to the highest bidder among 
the foreign banks for Shanghai taels. 

2. Sale of a large portion of the Jael checks to a 
native bank for Mexican dollars. 

3. Purchase of drafts in other currencies by payments 
of a check in Shanghai taels. Experience has shown that 
as a rule a better rate is secured in this way than if the 
gold had been sold in the outport directly for outport 
currency. 

Further very considerable economics are effected by 
departmentalization : 

Insurance ^ n insurance, by getting the best rates 

and by taking the burden of this business off 
the shoulders of busy missionaries in places more or less 
remote from the agency. 

Shipping I n shipping, through the association 

.getting the best of service from most of the 
steamship companies. The " A. M. T. " is increasingly 
recognized as a large and good business concern and fre 
quently gets accommodation for emergency needs which 
would not be possible for any one society representative to 
obtain. 

rj , . In purchasing supplies, since the needs 

fur chasing ,, ., L . . c ,, , 

Supplies * he missionaries in the interior, remote 

from shops, can be supplied at the lowest 
cost because the treasurer in charge of this branch gives 
time to it daily where supplies are in abundance at the 






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302 MISCELLANEOUS 

such large sums, realizing that the same careful considera 
tion is demanded for their distribution as would be given 
in a private business. 

While they know that this organization has already 
done something to diminish and prevent waste of mission 
funds they see that much more remains to be done in this 
direction. The inauguration of an Interchurch World Move 
ment, the prospects of increased cooperation between 
missions, and the experience gained by combining treasurer- 
ship work, all point to the timeliness of a finance survey. 
These considerations have led the association to send the 
various boards concerned a suggestion and an appeal that 
a special survey should now be made of the financial side 
of mission problems in China. 

The survey suggested would study the conditions of 
Far Eastern banking, gather information as to the different 
methods of accounting in the principal missions,, make 
recommendations for uniform and standard printed forms, 
report on the needs and the extent of the work that ought 
to be done by treasurers in the shipping and purchasing 
departments, and also, it is hoped, make recommendations 
on the extremely difficult and important matter of the 
construction and the equipment of all kinds of mission 
buildings. 

The treasurers in the Associated Mission Treasurers 
are too much immersed in the demands of immediate and 
detailed duties to be able to make such a survey as is 
needed. It is their desire that the whole problem should be 
reviewed if possible by some one or more persons, in whom 
are combined expert financial and techincal knowledge 
with a missionary spirit; and whose credentials would 
secure that inquiries made would be fully and frankly 
answered. 

In conclusion it should be clearly under- 
Necessityof t d th t T{ Associated Mission Treas- 

JtJest .Business . . . 

Methods urers in China is an organization 01 men 

who came to China moved by the missionary 

call. Some of them have spent long years doing station 

work of various kinds, and have an intimate knowledge of 



CHAPTER XXXII 

THE UNIVERSITY OF NANKING DEPARTMENT OF 
MISSIONARY TRAINING REPORT J9J8-I9 

C. S. Keen 

Eighth Year June 12, 1919, marked the close of the 

eighth year of the department. As m the 
case of the previous year prevailing war conditions greatly 
reduced the number in attendance, especially of men, but 
no effort has been spared to maintain previous standards 
of thoroughness and efficiency. 

Enrollment The year opened October 2 with an 

enrollment of thirty-five in the beginning 
class, and twelve in the second year. This number was 
augmented January 1 by the opening of a new class of 
fourteen students , bringing the total enrollment up to sixty- 
one. Of the above total, live students left for West China 
before February 1, three were obliged to leave on account 
of illness, eleven withdrew for unaccountable reasons, and 
one was transferred to Japan. Thus on the date of closing 
the enrollment was reduced to forty-one, or by about 33%. 
These all took the final examinations and passed creditably. 

Following the practice of previous re- 
Preponderance , ., . , * , . f * 
of Women ports it may be interesting, for purposes of 

comparison, to note that of the student body 
only fifteen (24.6%) are men, while forty-five (75.4%) 
are women. This disparity is undoubtedly traceable to war 
conditions. A further distribution shows the number of 
single men to be only two (3-3%) ; single women thirty-two 
(52.5%) ; married men thirteen (21.3%) 5 married women 
fourteen (22.9%). From this it appears that, as in former 
years, single women constitute about one-half of the total 
registrations. 

c , .. The following table indicates the de- 

Societies ,. .- L J -il J.T 

Represented nominations or societies represented with the 
number of students from each: Baptist 



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306 MISCELLANEOUS 

D In accordance with the understanding 

Jrermanent , , ... , .. -,, T . . : 

Preceptress na( ^ With her mission, Mrs. Joues is returning 
to her former work, and we take this occasion 
to thank her for the splendid way she has managed a new 
and difficult situation, and to thank her mission for their 
generous response to our importunity. In canvassing the 
field for a permanent preceptress Mrs. J. R. Goddard, 
Baptist Mission, Shaohsing, was approached, and after a 
visit to Nanking accepted, contingent upon securing the 
consent of her mission. This was later granted and Mrs. 
Goddard assumed responsibility in the autumn. Her mission 
has generously volunteered, till further notice, a service for 
which we are, indeed, grateful. 

Needs We conclude this report with the men 

tion of two outstanding needs of the depart 
ment, a dormitory for married couples and for single 
men ; and an assistant to the dean. We have been obliged 
from the first to throw ourselves upon the hospitality ef a 
long-suffering community, and be it said to their credit our 
demands have always been graciously met. It would be 
manifestly unfair, however, for the department to continue 
indefinitely to presume upon the generosity of missionary 
homes for the housing of its students, and the time has 
come when adequate provision for this need should be 
made. 

r The need for an assistant to the dean is 

Correspondence _. 

Department no ^ ess urgent. Each successive class 
furnishes its quota of correspondence 
students, who now number well over a hundred, and if the 
increasing bulk of correspondence which this department 
entails is to be cared for without detriment to the other 
phases of the work, the securing of an assistant should be 
considered an immediate necessity. The urgency of this 
request is heightened by the fact that the furlough of the 
dean occurs in 1921, and without such an assistant it will 
be exceedingly difficult to secure continuity of administra 
tion. If within a year a young woman with office experi 
ence could be secured who could take over the responsibility 
for the correspondence students, she, together with the 






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CHAPTER XXXIII 



September J, J9J8 to August 31, J9J9 
Reprinted 

If one goes down to the great Ch ien Men 
station late in August there can be seen 
Student Center coming from all the express trains hundreds 
of young men, students from every province 
and large city of China, to attend the institutions of higher 
learning in Peking 1 . What Paris is to France, and Tokyo 
to Japan, Peking is becoming to China the educational as 
well as the political center. 

14,265 students of fifty-four high schools and colleges 
are here in Peking. The greater part of these young 
men are in the thirty-nine government and private schools 
of the city, 2,026 students attending the fifteen mission 
schools. 

Not only does the Peking field contain twice as many 
students of higher grade as any other city in China, but 
there are several institutions in and about Peking which are 
of large national significance. The Government University 
with its departments of Jaw, literature, and science, is the 
capstone of the educational system of China. The Customs 
College, with its excellent foreign and Chinese faculty 
trains the Customs officials for the nation; fifty to one 
hundred of the graduates of the American Indemnity 
College go to America every year to bring back the treasures 
of Western learning to China; the Higher Normal College is 
the most important school in China for training the college 
principals and provincial educational supervisors. 
p In 1907 the beginning of work of a social 

Achievements anc ^ religious nature was started for these 
students by the Young Men s Christian 



1*11. 



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310 MISCELLANEOUS 

held, but stretches over the city. At present four centers 
are open in the north city, two in the east city, two in the 
west city and two in the south city. These centers are in 
churches or chapels. Lectures and socials are held that 
help to give healthful recreation to young men, many of 
whom are surrounded by the strong temptations of the 
first life of the capital. Of the fifty-four schools in Peking 
only twenty-three have dormitories. The majority of 
the students are living in the small hostels around which 
there are often many influences of evil. The social life 
promoted by these student centers is a positive con 
tribution to the right living of these young men. In 
some places athletics and games are conducted Saturday 
afternoons. 

Religious lectures, discussion groups, and Bible classes 
are carried on in these centers. During April, for example, 
in fifty-five classes throughout the city there was an average 
weekly attendance of five hundred sixty-eight. Future 
Christian leaders of China are being developed. 

Among the outstanding features of the 
Some Special year s work have been : the overhauling and 
Accomplish- , -i T c T j - e 

ments standardizing of religious education for 

Government students; a successful training 
conference of the student Association leaders in February 
at Tuugchow, attended by eighty-five; a remarkably success 
ful evangelistic campaign at the Peking School of Com 
merce and Finance, at which some seventy men made a 
decision for a Christian life; the organizing of a most 
successful fellowship society at the Higher Normal College, 
which conducted Sunday afternoon lectures and keeps up 
Bible class attendance among fellow students and an 
orphanage campaign in which students collected over seven 
hundred dollars. . . . 

,_, . With more experience on the part of the 

The Future , , , -, U-,- - 

Outlook whole staff and an addition to active service 

of several men, the work of the second year 
bids fair to go forward rapidly. 

In the north city rooms for a community center con 
ducted by students are being prepared. Extensive plans 



it JII 



PART VIII 
SURVEY 

PROGRESS OF THE GENERAL MISSIONARY SURVEY 
Milton T. Stauffer 

Beginning ^ n adopting the recommendations pre- 

of theVufvey sented by the Special Committee on Survey 
and Occupation at its annual meeting in 
1918, and in electing a full-time secretary for this work, 
the China Continuation Committee definitely committed 
itself to a General Missionary Survey of China. The need 
for such a survey was emphasized by missionary leaders as 
long ago as 1907 at the Centenary Missionary Conference 
held in Shanghai. It was repeatedly emphasized during 
the Mott Conferences in 1913. Since the organization of 
the China Continuation Committee, a Special Committee 
on Survey and Occupation, appointed annually, has been at 
work, studying the best possible lines along which a com 
prehensive survey of China might some day profitably be 
undertaken, and lading the necessary foundations for such 
a survey by gathering and classifying all the information 
obtainable on China and mission work in China. Since 
1915 the annual collection and publication of mission 
statistics on standard statistical forms, as well as the 
publication of an annual Directory of Protestant Missions, has 
provided the Survey with a background of statistical data 
which is of great value. 

Nature of ^ n Cnarac tei 1 the survey has been quanti- 

the Survey tative and geographical. It has dealt chiefly 
with locations and statistics, leaving the 
study of the quality of mission work for a later date, and 
for such special agencies as the China Christian Educational 
Association and the China Medical Missionary Association. 



rr HI 






IW 



















. 


















314 SURVEY 

absence of any scientific geographical survey of the entire 
country such as exists in India, and the general lack 
of complete and reliable data on anything that concerns 
the people and country as a whole. The various govern 
mental departments issue reports from time to time which 
are as good and complete as they can be made under the 
present restless state of the government, but which never 
theless raise large question marks in many minds at too 
frequent intervals and leave much to be desired. A 
number of maps of China as a whole exist, all of which 
seem equally open to criticism. In addition \ve have a 
smaller number of maps of provincial maps, considerably 
better, and the work of a number of men of different 
nationality. For the purposes of the survey it was 
necessary for the committee to secure and send out small 
maps of the provinces to all of its correspondents. The 
only maps that were conveniently small enough and that 
could be obtained in sufficiently large numbers were those 
published in an atlas by the Commercial Press. These 
maps were taken originally from different sources, were 
inaccurate in many details and when enlarged to a uniform 
scale did not always fit together. However, they were the 
best available and on the whole, after embodying the 
corrections so kindly made by the missionary corre 
spondents, have proved satisfactory for the committee s 
purposes. 

More perplexing difficulties have been experienced in 
preparing the large outline maps of the provinces from 
these smaller originals. These larger maps on a uniform 
scale of 1:750,000 have been necessary for transcribing 
the geographical data received. The fact that these 
original provincial maps were from different sources and 
that in enlarging them for our use any differences in 
boundary were greatly exaggerated, has made the task of 
enlarging and fitting them together a matter of despair 
except for a trained geographer. A large map of China on 
Bonne s projection, and based on the provincial maps 
originally used in the survey, has just been completed in 
order to meet the desires of the Survey Department of the 
Interchurch World Movement of North America. 



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316 SURVEY 

of information that might well be gathered in China, and 
the need of carefully guarded terminology, as well as in 
confirming the committee in the wisdom of its plans . for 
the China Survey where these differed radically from 
those followed in India. May I express here the sense of 
gratitude on the part of not a few of those engaged in 
the general survey of China, especially of the chairman 
and the secretary of the committee, to Dr. Findlay and 
his committee in India ? Though we have been working 
at great distances apart and in some senses along different 
lines, we have experienced here in China at least a feeling 
of fellowship which has been mos_t heartening. In the face 
of real physical handicaps Dr. Findlay proved himself a 
pioneer of real worth in a difficult field of mission adminis 
tration and he made a distinct contribution to the thinking 
and the work of all those interested in missionary surveys, 
who, just because they are still few, cannot afford the 
distinction or the luxury of independence. 

The following will indicate in a general 
The Type of way the kind of information which the com- 

Iniormation , ,. . , ., , 

Called for mittee during the first period of its work 

endeavored to gather for the whole of China. 

1. The delimitation of all mission fields, showing the 
area or areas which each mission works and/or for the 
evangelization of which it accepts responsibility. 

2. The location, in each mission s field, of all stations, 
evangelistic centers, and other places where a weekly religious 
service is held, together with such statistics regarding these 
evangelistic centers as shall make possible a study of both 
extent and character of the evangelistic work done. From 
such information it will also be possible to gain some 
idea as to those parts of the field which may be regarded 
as effectively occupied from an evangelistic point of view, 
partially occupied, or virtually unoccupied. 

3. The relative density of population in China, prefer 
ably by hsiens, together with a list of all cities having an 
estimated population exceeding 50,000 and those exceeding 
20,000. 



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318 SURVEY 

The kind of information called for from these provinces 
is limited strictly to such data as concerns future mission 
ary occupation. For example, the principal language or 
tribal areas with a list of strategic centers that ought to be 
occupied, in the order of their importance, districts where 
population is relatively dense, cities having a population of 
over five thousand; various religions, with number and 
distribution of adherents, possible difficulties arising out of 
the attitude of the people toward Christianity; their inac 
cessibility, the climatic conditions; possible assistance and 
suggestions as to best methods, from missions at present 
working on the border of these unoccupied regions. 
Response There are in China to-day about one 

hundred and twenty missionary societies, 
over fifty of which may be classified under one or another 
of the six well-known denominational groups; Anglican, 
Baptist, Congregational, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presby 
terian. The remaining number, with the exception of the 
China Inland Mission, which receives a classification by 
itself, come under no denominational grouping. Chief 
among these are the Foreign Christian Missionary Society, 
the Christian and Missionary Alliance, the Christian 
Missions in Many Lands, the Seventh-Day Adventists, the 
Salvation Army, the Youug Men s Christian Associations 
and Young Women s Christian Associations. These missions 
represent relatively large forces with extended fields. The 
majority, however, unclassified under any denominational 
groups, are small and independent mission societies. The 
presence of so many societies with differences in size, 
methods, denominational affiliations, and missionary em 
phasis will indicate the difficulty which any committee 
experiences in gathering complete data from all. Every 
society doing evangelistic work and assuming responsibilities 
for a particular area, however small, has been approached 
by the committee for information regarding its work. Even 
independent missionaries not regularly claiming any field, 
were written to. Exclusive of these independent workers 
over one hundred and fifty mission correspondents, repre 
senting every nationality and denomination, received the 
survey questionnaire material, and of these all but two have 






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ifrf. ra<Milly 4rfl< 

TV 



320 SURVEY 

agree with returns of the next three months. It was 
perhaps too much to expect that returns would not show 
many inconsistencies and omissions. The terminology 
of missions is not uniform throughout the societies. The 
units of mission administration are not defined in terms of 
geographical or political administrative divisions. Statistics 
are not summarized hsien by hsien and in many cases it has 
been impossible even for the purposes of the survey to arrive 
at such summaries. Frequently the correspondent who was 
asked to locate the evangelistic centers of his mission had 
insufficient knowledge to guide him in the work. The 
names of smaller cities naturally do not appear on any 
maps. The correspondent perhaps had never been privileged 
to visit all the evangelistic centers. He was dependent there 
fore on the help of others, or on a mission map of the field 
drawn to a large scale, though in not a few cases missions 
lacked even such a map of their own field. Many societies, 
until requested to do so by the survey committee, had never 
officially determined upon the definite geographical limita 
tions of their field. Some correspondents were conscientious 
and the returns from these men and women were most 
accurate and complete. Others, for various reasons, were 
not in a position to return accurate or complete information. 
In such cases, later correspondence and interviews with 
missionaries during the summer conferences have provided 
corrections and additions which have greatly improved the 
original returns. It must be said, however, that one of the 
most gratifying features of the survey, apart from the large 
percentage of returns, has been the almost uniformly high 
standard of careful work and the degree of dependence 
which can be placed upon most of the returns. 
p j. . During this second period of the com- 

Char ts" 1 mittee s work, while the field delimitations 

and the locations of evangelistic centers and 
other information were being transferred to working 
maps and statistical sheets, the committee endeavored 
before the summer to concentrate on a single province 
and prepared a series of charts graphically presenting some 
of the information received. This was done in order 
that the committee might indicate the type of information 



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322 SURVEY 

here again we face a subject regarding which little informa 
tion is obtainable. 

The political unrest throughout China \\hich has 
continued ever since the survey began has also been 
responsible for further obstructions to the work of the 
committee. Resulting as it does in the presence of large 
rival armies and numerous bands of lawless brigands, 
especially in such provinces as Hunan, Fukieu, and 
Szechwau, it has made the cooperation of the missionaries 
of the districts much more difficult than would have been 
the case in normal circumstances. 

The third period in the progress of the 

T k *T*f- * A 

P d f the survev began in October of this year with the 
Work appointment of an editorial eommitteecharged 

with- the responsibility of publishing the final 
report. This report, it is hoped, will be ready for distribu 
tion before the end of 1920. According to the tentative 
table of contents suggested by the secretary, the report 
will consist of four general sections. The first section will 
deal with mission work in China, as a whole and contain a 
large number of general maps together with explanatory 
letterpress. The second section will present the work done 
and to be done in each province by a series of ten or more 
maps with accompanying letterpress. The third section 
will consist of statistical tables and charts giving denomi 
national comparisons and illustrating the degree of 
emphasis and success achieved in different forms of 
missionary work. The fourth section will be devoted 
almost entirely to written reports on unoccupied areas and 
a number of other subjects closely related to the missionary 
program in China. 

From the beginning the survey com- 
Cooperation ot m jttee has worked in closest cooperation with 
andMedkal the China Christian Educational Association 
Associations and the China Medical Missionary Associa 
tion. Both of these organixations have sub 
committees on survey and are in a position to supplement 
the quantitative work already done by the China Continua 
tion Committee with qualitative studies of their own. 









* 






-^ - 
> it 



u Iv ^- 



324 SURVEY 

more clearly in the Chinese edition than is now done 
in the English report, facts of special interest and value 
to the Chinese Church. 

The Interchurch World Movement in 

T he l n ~ , , North America has both affected arid been 
church World , , , . 

Movement affected by the general survey ol China, Ihe 

effect on the survey has been to hasten its 
progress and to place at its command increased facilities 
for completing the publication of the final report by 
the autumn of this year. The survey has affected the 
Interchurch World Movement chiefly through the contribu 
tion which it has been in a position to make in the form of 
maps, charts, statistical date, photographs and literature of 
every kind, suitable for use in publicity campaigns hrough- 
out America in the spring. There has been forwarded 
without hesitancy or stint everything which in the com 
mittee s judgment could be put to profitable use among the 
home churches, and which at the same time was sufficiently 
accurate and complete to represent conditions in China as 
they are. As a proof of the international character and 
functions of the China Continuation Committee, it was voted 
at the last meeting of the Survey Committee to send 
duplicates of whatever publicity material is now being sent 
to America to the missionary societies in Great Britain and 
on the Continent. 

Until the objectives and organization of 
ChSst ~ tho China- for-Christ Movement are more 

Movement definitely known it is impossible to predict 
what relationship the survey will have to this 
nation-wide evangelistic forward movement. Certainly the 
large amount of information which the survey has brought 
together* will be drawn upon freely by any publicity depart 
ment. Moreover, the Chinese Church is waiting and eager 
to receive a broader vision of its work and its respon 
sibilities, such as only the results of a comprehensive survey 
can afford. 

Local Surveys Through the secretary, the committee 

attempts to keep in close touch with all local 

surveys, of whatever nature, that are made in China or 

other mission fields. Copies of the questionnaires that are 



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326 SURVEY 

in a mission study textbook on Honan, which is being 
prepared by him for use at the summer mission study 
conferences. The Augustana Synod Mission hopes to 
make use of the Honan survey material in a booklet to be 
prepared this spring especially for educational purposes 
among its home constituents. 

Shantung 2. Recently, those engaged in work 

among returning Chinese coolies in Shan 
tung have appealed for information which will enable 
them to relate these returning coolies to the mission or 
church in their native districts. The committee has re 
sponded tp this appeal by preparing three charts, one 
showing the areas worked by the various missions, an 
other giving the location of all stations and all evangelistic 
centers wherever a chapel is located, and a third chart 
showing the centers where Christian Chinese workers are 
residing. 

Yunnan 3. As a direct result of the survey 

of unoccupied areas throughout Yunnan, the 
committee has been able to supply helpful information to 
the Chinese Home Missionary Society. This information 
has served as a guide to the executive committee of the 
movement, when considering areas which the commission 
now in Yunnan might most profitably visit and study 
with a view to recommending one or more of these unoc 
cupied regions as suitable territory for future occupancy. 

Field Boundaries 4. During the year requests have come 
from the following missions for definite 
information regarding the field boundaries and the advance 
programs of missions adjoining their field; the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Mission South, 
the American Friends Mission, the American Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society, the United Evangelical Association, 
the English Baptist Mission, the Pentecostal Missionary 
Union, the Church of the Brethren Mission, and several 
independent missionaries. As a result of information 
gladly supplied, the missions concerned have been in a 
position to decide more wisely in choosing sections of 
their o\vn field on which to put increased emphasis. 









* 







9+tk tw K a**..* i L*iWriJMM M < 
W AMI 

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T A 



328 SURVEY 

appealing for an increase of ten new missionaries from 
each of the three mission societies now at work in the 
province. 

Inspiration 8 - % fa . r tne largest by-product of 

the committee s work last year has been 
of an educational and inspirational nature. Wherever 
addresses have been given on the subject of the present, 
missionary occupation of China a larger vision has been 
made possible to both missionaries and Chinese Christians, 
and the immensity of the task still ahead has impressed 
itself upon the miuds of all. The spirit of unity and 
cooperation between the missions has been increased as 
men and women have seen the work of missions as a whole, 
and have been led to face and plan their work unitedly 
in statesmanlike ways. 

Occasionally one hears the remark: 

- Af ter a11 what is the good of this survev - 
ministration au< 3 f this expenditure of time and money?" 
Arid then they who believe in the survey 
and hope for benefit to come from it, partly because 
they have put a small share of their own time and 
selves into the work, are led to answer: " After all, 
what is the good of laying any foundations for any 
thing ? Why base policies on facts ? Why hope to im 
prove our own work by attempting ever to visualize it as a 
part of the whole ?" The absurdity of the first question is 
sufficiently set forth in the counter-queries. Mission ad 
ministration has reached a stage when facts such as the 
survey hopes to gather are indispensable if the missionary 
cause is to be planned and carried forward effectively. In 
an economic age like the present should not the Kingdom 
of God receive the same businesslike, statesmanlike direc 
tion accorded to other humanitarian movements. By way 
of rousing the expectation of the reader rather than of 
justifying a survey which needs no apologetic, this article 
is closed with a list of problems of mission administra 
tion on which the survey has already begun to throw 
light. 



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330 SURVEY 

to missions in China a large increase in the near future 
in both missionaries and money, how cr.n this increase 
be used to secure a united, comprehensive, and effective 
evangelization of all China through the medium of, and to 
the benefit of the Chinese Church ? Where can evangeliza 
tion be hastened by increase of foreign or Chinese staff, 
or by change of methods? In which department or kind 
of work is our mission weakest? If unable to go into 
this form of work now, which mission would be most 
acceptable should we feel called upon to invite another 
mission to come in and carry on this work which we can 
not ? Is there any part of the field which should be given 
over entirely to the Chinese? What proportion of the 
Christian Church is illiterate ? What advantages for 
spiritual inspiration are offered to church leaders ? What 
is the proportion of work done among women in contrast 
to work done among men ? Which classes in society are as 
yet untouched by evangelistic efforts ? What provision 
has the Church for the distribution of Christian literature? 



PAR1 IX 
OVTUAftlO* 



!** 



i I * 






332 OBITUARIES 

He was honored by Japanese statesmen. Rich and poor loved 
him. He rendered effective service in creating mutual under 
standing between man and man, nation and nation. 

He was a man with a propaganda. It was not the orthodox or 
conventional one. It was to behold the work of God in nature and 
in grace. The kingdom of God was only partially revealed in 
theology. Every literature and every nation had revelations. It 
was our duty to give the last and best. The kingdom of God .should 
be established now. It was an urgent necessity. Leaven the people 
with new ideas, with the forces of education. Put in the leaven ; let 
it heave and work and burst. Seek the worthy ; convert the leaders. 
The nations of Europe had been led by their princes, to accept 
Christianity, so should China. So theology, methods, ideas, should be 
broad and adaptable. He felt that leaders at home needed en 
lightening which he assiduously did. It was his mission to suggest. 
He appealed to history and experience for confirmation. In this 
way he would evangelize China and broaden the basis of Christian 
missions. He was essentially the apostle of social and political 
reforms by application of the benefits of Christianity. He would 
have everybody do this : consuls, merchants, professors, were ex 
horted to play their part. Writing to some professors he said : 
" God gives you all a unique opportunity of becoming the leaders of 
China in education. May you become seers and teachers and 
students that future generations will look back on and say, these 
were the modern sages of China. Do you each grip the hand of 
God." 

Certain phrases help us to sage the man and Ids aims. Some of 
these are, " Keep step with God," " Conversion by the million," 
"A million in a day," "The good news," The kingdom of 
God, " "The work of God." "These phrases betoken the ideas that 
throbbed in his mind. He was keen on delivering the world from 
present miseries. He was not unfittingly called, decades ago, " The 
Apostle of North China." 

EVAN MORGAN. 

Rev. Arnold Foster, B.A. (Cantab) L. M. S., Central China, 
J87J-J878 and J884-J9J9 

Foster, Rev. Arnold, B. A., LMS. Born in England. Educated 
at St. John s College, Cambridge. Arrived in China, in 1871. Engaged 
in evangelistic work at Wuchang, Hupeh. Died a ; Killing, July 3", 
1919. Sketch in North China Herald, August 9, 1919, page 343, and 
Chinese Recorder, September, 1919, pages (524-6. 

Any one meeting Arnold Foster casually, without having pre 
viously made his acquaintance, would have set him dgwn as a 
dignitary of the Established Church ; not so much on account of his 
neat, simple, clerical dress as of a certain ascetic and highly intellec 
tual cast of features which, somehow ov o -hor, one instinctively 
associates with a well-known type of High-church ecclesiastic. 



331 OBITUARIES 

do ill, by stealth. Probably for this same reason, his sound 
scholarship, his successful leadership, in certain directions, and the 
length and faithfulness of his service did not attract the notice of 
tho.se who might have honored their university by conferring 
academic distinction upon him. We who loved him, needed nothing 
of that kind. To us he was ever saint, philosopher, and friend, and 
wo held him in the highest honor for what he was a great and 
true servant of God. 

With all his intense seriousness and his dominating spirituality 
ho was, nevertheless, very responsive to fun and thoroughly enjoyed 
a. good joke. He was at his best socially at a children s party, 
surrounded by the little folk. Rut the pure love that irradiated his 
features at such times was ever the same, whether he was scattering 
coins among beggars, rebuking a church member on account of some 
grievous fault, or whether ho was engaged in the labor which he 
loved, and wherein he was eminently faithful, the daily preaching of 
the gospel. We feel that when our friend died "God broke the 
mold " and that " we ne er shall look upon his like again." We 
know this, however, that the world is better, that the kingdom of 
God upon earth has been advanced because Arnold Foster lived as 
he lived, and died as he died. 

A. BONSEY. 
Gibson, John Campbell, M.A., D.D. 

Dr. Gibson passed away at Glasgow, while on furlough on 
November >, 1919. He was the son of a former professor of 
theology at the Union Free Church College at Glasgow and was 
himself a distinguished student at that college and also at the 
Glasgow University. He joined the English Presbyterian Mission 
and came to China in 1874 settling at Swatow. -Here he began his 
work when Jittle more than beginnings had been made, and in the 
forty-five years of service he was permitted to take part in and, in a 
measure, to originate movements which have made the Swatow 
Mission, particularly in church organization and self-support, an 
object lesson to older and much larger missions. Dr. Gibson s mis 
sionary career exhibited versatility and thoroughness ; it was charac 
terized by a steady devotion to his own mission and a strong interest 
in the success of the missionary body as a whole. To the problems 
of the mission field he brought a trained and well-balanced mind and 
not the least of his many services to the Church in China is the lead 
he has given in the formation oi a broad and general mission policy. 
Dr. Gibson had a constructive mind, and it is safe to say that most 
of the large missionary movements that have taken place in the last 
twenty five years owo a good deal to his cooperation or counsel. 

His all-round scholarship is seen in his translation work. The 
New Testament and parts of the Old have been rendered into the 
Swatow vernacular (romanised) and it is almost superfluous to say 









i UM 





















U II r^ , 



336 OBITUARIES 



Bishop James "Wnitford Bashford, D.D., Ph.D., LL.D. 

James W. Bashford was born in Fayette, Wisconsin, May 29, 1849. 
His youth was spent in a determined struggle with fortune of which 
he came victor when he graduated with honors from the University 
of Wisconsin and the School of Theology of Boston University. He 
was ordained to the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
1878 and held pastorates in Massachusetts, Maine, and New York 
states. In 1889 he was elected to the presidency of Ohio Wesleyan 
University. In 1904 he was elected a Bishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and assigned to residence in China. On March 18, 
1919, he died in Pasadena, California. 

Bishop Bashford first caught the attention of his church when, 
as pastor of one of the largo congregations of Buffalo, he gave evi 
dence of his ability to interpret the eternal truths of the kingdom of 
God in terms of modern thought. Intellectual freedom combined 
with evangelical fervor always marked his career. When this same 
loyalty to the truth was transferred to the presidency of Ohio 
Wesleyan University it produced the impression which largely served 
to make that institution influential in a measure far beyond that, 
to be expected of a school of its size. This was an influence of 
life rather than of mere intellectual attainments. Any one familiar 
with the mission fields in which the Methodist Episcopal Church is 
working knows them to bo thickly dotted with the graduates of this 
Ohio college, and that scores of these missionaries received their life 
inspiration during the presidency of Bishop Bashford. 

It was inevitable that his church should call such a leader to its 
episcopacy. The election at Los Angeles had been foreshadowed for 
months before it took place, but his church was hardly prepared for the 
eagerness with which the newly elected bishop seized upon his 
election as a providential opening to the mission field. Behind 
his choice there was the conviction of years that CJod wanted him for 
missionary service. During all the years of his pastorate and the 
crowded period of his college presidency he had made it a rule to read 
every book on China upon which ho could lay his hands. It was before 
he came to China, not after, that the nucleus of that remarkable 
library which now rests in Peking was gathered. Men who know 
China most intimately have testified that ho brought to this country 
an astoundingly complete knowledge of its history and problems. 

To his years of administration in China one word is always 
applied statesmanlike. It was his ability to see problems in the 
large and to grapple with them in a large way that made him so 
quickly one of the outstanding forces in the development of the New 
China. Foremost among all his services to the advancement of the 
kingdom in this land must be placed the new realization which ho 
gave the church at home of the importance of the development 
taking place around the Pacific basin. 






II** < 






























338 OBITUARIES 

Bacon, Rev. John Lionel, CMS. Born in England. Arrived in 
China in 1909. Died, December 5, 1918. Engaged in evangelistic 
work at Kweilin, Kwangsl. 

Beare, Rev. Thomas J., KM A. Born in America, November 11, 
1893. Arrived in China, October 12, 1918. Died at Jungtseh, Honan, 
November 12, 1919, of pneumonia. 

Belleville, Miss Marie Elizabeth, YWCA. Died at Shanghai, 
March 8, 1919, of brain tumor. Arrived in China, October 27, 1917. 
Labored in Canton, Kwangtung. Sketches in 7. W.C.A. News Item, 
February, March, 1919, and Mdlard s Review, March 15, 1919, page 100. 

Brandt, Mrs. Ernest (Greta Anderson), SA. Born, June 15, 
1892. Arrived in China, April 8, 1917. Married, February 24, 1919. 
Died, June 5, 1919, Fengchon, Shansi, of tuberculosis of the lungs. 
Labored at Taku, Chihli, in evangelistic work. Sketch in The War 
Cry (Chinese, English, and Swedish editions). 

Briscoe, Mrs. W. F. H. (Gertrude Linom), CIM. Born, Septem 
ber 3, 1881. Died, March 7, 1919, at Ilungtung, Shansi, of peri 
carditis. Arrived in China, November 4, 1905. Married, September 
17, 1913. Labored in Hochow, Kiiwo, Yoyang, and Hungtung, 
Shansi, in evangelistic work. Sketch in China Inland Mission Monthly 
Notes, March, 1919. 

Brock, Mrs. J. (Edith Elliott), CIM. Arrived in China, No 
vember, 8, 1894. Married, October 15, 1897. Died, December 4, 1919, 
at Chowkiahow, Honan, of influenza and bronchitis. Engaged in 
evangelistic work at Chiichowfu, Anhwei, before her marriage, in the 
Training School at Anking, Anhwei, and later in evangelistic work at 
Chowkiakow, from 1902. Sketch in China Inland Mission Monthly 
Notes, December, 1919. 

Brooks, Miss Ida Lois. Born in America. Arrived in China, 
January 2, 1907, and served the Methodist Publishing House, China 
Sunday School Union, and Chinese Recorder successively as stenog 
rapher and was engaged in evangelistic work out of office hours. Did 
not leave Shanghai until her departure for America in 1919 on account 
of health. Died, October 14, 1919, at Los Angeles, California, U. S. A., 
of cancer. 

Carlsson, Sven, SwAM (CIM). Born, June 26, 1891, in 
Sweden. Arrived in China, October 27, 1915. Died, May 18, 1919, at 
Paotowchen, Shansi, of typhus. Labored in Paotowchen and Feng- 
chen in pastoral and evangelistic work. Sketch in China Inland 
Mission Monthly Notes, June, 1919. 

Cheshier, Miss E., SCHM. Arrived in China in 1917. Died in 
1919. Engaged in evangelistic work at Canton. 

Clarke, George W., CIM. Born in England. Arrived in China, 
September 26, 1875. Died at T.sinan, Shantung, from unemia, 



340 OBITUARIES 

Edwards, George Kemp, M.B , CH.B., BMS. Born, Juno 19, 1888, at 
Taiyiianfu, Shansi. Arrived in China as a missionary, March 27, 1915. 
Died, May 2, 1919, at Taiyiianfu, Shansi, of cerebrospinal meningitis. 
Labored at Taiyiianfu in medical work. Sketch in China Medical 
Journal, May, 1919, Chinese Recorder, July, 1919, pages 479, 480, North 
China Hemid, page 433. 

Field, Rev. Alvin W., CA. Born, February 6, 1885, in Canada. 
Arrived in China, December, 1912. Died, August 29, 1919, at Hong 
kong, of malignant malaria. Engaged in evangelistic and educational 
work at Wuchow, Kwangsi. 

FJtch, Mrs. Gsorge Ashmore (Alberta Castelane Kempton). 
Born in America, November 14, 1886. Arrived in China, 1910. Died 
at Shanghai, February 1, 1919, from paratyphoid. Sketch in North 
China Herald, February, 1919, page 317. 

George, Rev. Fred Peterson, SEMC. Born, October 31, 1889, in 
Sweden. Arrived in China, October 5, 1918. Died at Siangyangfu, 
Hupeh, October 25, 1919, of peritonitis, following operation for 
gangrenous appendix. Engaged in evangelistic work at Siangyangfu, 
Hupeh. 

Graham, Miss Mary Fleming, UFS. Born in 1866 at Cro.isgates, 
Fife, Scotland. Arrived in China, April 19, 1896. Died, January 8, 
J919, at Liaoyang, of heart failure. Labored in Liaoyang, Man 
churia, in evangelistic work. Sketch in North China Herald, Januaiy 
18, 1919, page 183. 

Grant, Mrs. J. S. (Annie S.), ABFMS. Born, June 14, 1859, at 
Fergus, Ontario, Canada. Arrived in China, November 10, 1889. 
Died, January 7, 1919, at Ningpo, Chekiang, of heart failure. 
Labored at Ningpo in evangelistic work. Sketch in North China 
Herald, January 18, 1919, page 139, and Chinese Recorder, March, 1919. 

Hager, Mrs. C. R. (Marie Von Eausch), ABCFM. Came to 
China in 1891 as missionary of the Basel Mission. Married Dr. 
Charles R. Hager, December 13, 1896. Opened first kindergarten in 
South China. After marriage conducted her homo in Canton as a 
missionary home. Died, November 22, 1918, at Claremont, California, 
U.S.A. See sketch of Dr. Hager in Chinese Recorder, 1917, pages 
797, 798. 

Hay ward, John Neale, CIM. Born, April, 1857, in England. 
Arrived in China, January 13, 1889. Died, February 20, 1919, at 
London, England, of heart disease. Labored in Szechwan (two years) 
and Shanghai, in executive and financial work. Sketch in China 
Inland Mission Monthly Noies, March, 1919, and Norlli China Herald, 
March 8, 1919, page 627. 












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342 OBITUARIES 

MacGregor , Mrs. Catherine Ross (widow of Rev. J. M. Howie, 
formerly EPM). Arrived in China, 1888. Died at Edinburgh, 
Scotland, in January, 1919. Notice in North China Herald, March 
22, 1919, page 773. 

McCloy, Thomas, M.D., SBC. Arrived in China, 1883. Died at 
Yokohama, Japan, March 25, 1919. Engaged in medical work at 
Wuchow, South China, from 1886 to 1904, when he removed to Japan. 
Sketch in Chinese Recorder, 1919, pages 409, 410. 

Mclntyre, Miss Lila, SBC. Born at Long Creek, North Carolina, 
U. S. A. Arrived in China, February, 1909. Died, January or 
February, 1918, at Atlanta, Georgia, U. S. A., of Bright s disease. 
Served as a trained nurse in medical work at Chengchow, Honan. 
Sketch in the Christian Index, Atlanta, Georgia. 

McKee, Mrs. S. C. (Augusta List), PN. Born, August 27, 1884, 
at Redding, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Arrived in China, November 26, 
1910. Died, November 8, 1919, at Hengchow, Hunan. Engaged in 
evangelistic work at Chenchow, Hunan (one year), and Hengchow, 
Hunan. Sketch in Woman s Work. 

Murdocfc, Miss Beatrice M., MEFB. Arrived in China, October 
20, 1916. Died, September 23, 1919, at Nanking, Kianesu, following 
an operation. Labored at Wuhu, Anhwei, and Chengtu, Szechwan, 
as superintendent of nurses. Sketch in China Press. 

Newton, Mrs. C. H. (Rusella Anderson), PN. Born, October 20, 
1872, at Palmyra, Missouri, U. S. A. Arrived in China, October, 1896. 
Died, October 9, 1918, at Oxford, Ohio, U. S. A., of heart failure. 
Labored at Kiunechow, Kwangtung, in evangelistic work. Sketch 
in Hainan Newsletter, and Chinese Recorder, July, 1919, page 481. 

Ohlinger, Rev. Franklin, D.D., Ind& MEFB. Born, > ovember 29, 
1845, near Fremont, Nebraska, U. S. A. Arrived in China. October 14, 
1870. Died, January 6, 1919, at Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A., of 
mental collapse and old age. Labored in Foochow, Hinghwa, Fukien, 
and Korea Conferences, m evangelistic, educational, and editorial 
work. Sketch in China Christian Advocate, April, 1919. 

Parker, Rev. James, CMS. Born in County Down, Ireland. 
Arrived in China, 1903. Died, August 14, 1919, at Yungchowfu, of 
dysentery. Labored in Yungchowfu, Hunan, in evangelistic work. 
Sketch in Chinese Recorder, October, 1919, page 691. 

Pedersen, Rev. Th., SEMC. Arrived in China, 1910. Died, July 
2, 1919. Engaged in evangelistic work at Nanchang, Hupeh. 

Rhind, Miss Jessia P., Independent. Arrived in China, January 
13, 1889. Died, January 16, 1919, at Killing, Kiangsi, of heart failure. 
Engaged in evangelistic work at Wuhu, Anhwei. Sketch in Chinese 
Recorder, April, 1919. 



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344 OBITUARIES 

Strfttmatter, Mrs. Lucy Combs, M.D., WFMS. Arrived in China, 
1873. Died at Columbus, Ohio, U. 8 A., April 24, 1919, from a com 
plication of diseases First medical missionary of her society. With 
Miss Mary Porter and Miss Maria Brown formed the trio that blazed 
the W. F. M. S. trail in North China. Keturned to America perma 
nently in 1881. Sketch in China Christian Advocate, July, 1919. 

Tomkinson, Mrs. E., CIM. Born in England Arrived in 
China, October 24, 1887. Died, December 24, 1918, at Chefoo, Shan 
tung, of malignant disease of abdomen. Labored at Yiinnanfu, 
Yunnan, Ichang, Hupeh, and Ninghaichow, Shantung, in evangel 
istic work. Sketch in China Inland Mission Monthly Notes, 
January, 1919. 

Wilkinson, Thaddeus Miller. Born, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania? 
U. S. A., in 1863. Arrived in China, as a self-supporting missionary, 
in 1908. Died, April 27, 1919, at Foochow, where he conducted a 
supply store for missionaries and others, devoting much time to 
preaching, teaching, and lecturing. Sketch in China Christian 
Advocate, June, 1919. 



APPINDCX A 
OSA is n THOUGHT or THI vuu> A BN i* 



F. 
I 

A. 
* .**. i ~ j r r .*< K% M M*X t fct , 

* / - I ClMM* C MflkMMtak CHM* 

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346 APPENDICES 

Stevenson, John W. Marshall -Broomhall, Morgan and Scott, Ltd., 
London, 2/6. 

Hudson Taylor and ilie Clrina Inland Mission DR. and MRS. HOWARD 
TAYLOR, London, Morgan and Scott, Ltd., 9/-. 

C. Poetry 

Chinese Poems, 170 ARTHUR WALEY, Constable, London, 7/6. 
D. Studies of China 

Camps and Trails in China EOY CHAPMAN ANDREWS and YVETTE 
BORING ANDREWS, Apploton and Company, Gold $3.00. 

China s Mineral Enterprise WILLIAM F. COLLINS, London, William 
Heineman, 21/- 

Chinese Life and Thought, Some Aspects of Peking Language School, 
Kwang Hsiieh Publishing House, Mex. $2.00. 

Land Tax in China HAN LIANG HWANG, Longmans, Green and 
Company, New York, Gold $1.50. 

Ma Mission en Chine (1884-1915) A. GERARD, Paris, Plon-Nourrit 
et Cie, Imprimerus-Editeurs. 

"Sayings of the Mongols" Par le R. P. JOSEPH VAN OOST, Im- 
primirie de L Orphelinat de Tou-se-wei, Zi-ka-wei, Shanghai. 

E. Romance and Fact 

Chinese Days, My F. ALSOP, Little Brown and Company, Boston, 
Gold $2.00. 

Chinese Life, Stories from " ROVER," Edward Evans and Sons, Mex. 
$1.08. 

Civilization Tales of the Orient (Some Tales of China) ELLEN M. LA 
MOTTE, George H. Doran, New York, Gold $1.50. 

Foreign Magic JEAN CARTER COCHRAN, Missionary Education Move 
ment, New York, Gold $1.50. 

Peking Dust ELLEN LA MOTTE, Century Company, New York, Gold 
$1.50. 

Wanderer on a Thousand Hills, The EDITH WHERRY, John Lane, 
Gold $1.75. 

Wind from the Wilderness, A MARY GAUNT, T. Werner Laurie, Ltd., 
London, 7/-. 

F. In International Thought 

Ancient Peoples at Xew Tasks WILLARD PRICK, Missionary Education 
Movement, New York, Gold $0.60. 



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348 APPENDICES 

K. Signs of Progress 

Neiv Life Currents in China MARY NINDE GAME WELL, Missionary 
Education Movement, New York, Toronto, paper, Gold $0.5 J ; 
cloth, Gold $0.75. 

Progressive Ideah of Christian Work in China Edited by F. 
RAWLINSON, Edward Evans and Sons, Ltd., Shanghai, Mex. $0.<>0. 

II. Articles 

(July 1, 1918, io June 30, 1919) 
A. Pioneers 

Bashford, Bishop China Christian Advocate, June, 1919. 
Chang Chien FREDERICK R. SITES, Asia, July, 1918. 

Chavannes, Edouard E. LAUFER, Journal of the American Oriential 

Society, Vol. 38. 
Dollar, Robert JOHN FOORD, Asia, August, 1918. 

Jieme Tien-zu, Dr., Chinese Eailway Builder H. K. TONG, Millard s 
Review, May 31, 1919. 

Li Ping (Modern Irrigation Engineer of Ancient China) H. K. 
RICHARDSON, Asia, May, 1919. 

Origin of Kuanhsien Water Works T. TORRAXCE, West China Mission 
ary News, June, 1919. 

Taylor, Hudson, and the C.LM. EUGENE STOCK, East and West, 
April, 1919. 

B. Poetry and Music 

Chinese Lyrics CATHERINE BEACH ELY, Chinese Student s Monthly, 

May, 1919. 

Chinese Music D. T. LIEU, "China in 1918." 
Chinese System of Versification N. H. RUCK, China Bookman, June, 

1919. 

Chinese Poe.try, Notes on ARTHUR WALEY, Journal of the North 
China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. L, 1919. 

Poetry, A Magazine of Verse MRS. FLORENCE AYSCOUGH and Miss 
AMY LOWELL. 

C. Studies of China 

Agriculture, Botany and Zoology of China, Notes on W. SKVORTZOW, 
Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
Vol. L, 1919. 













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350 APPENDICES 



Szechwan, North-Western R. F. FITCH, Chinese Eecorder, December, 
1918. 

Travelling in Tibet T. S KENSON, West China Missionary News, 
(1) February, 1919; (2) March, 1919. 

Trees and Shrubs of West China C. E. ELLIOTT, West China Mission 
ary News, September, 1918. 

D. Romance and Fact 

Chinese Fiction, Dips into G. T. CANDLIX, Chinese Eecorder, (1) 
June, 1918; (2) July, 1918; (3) August, 1918; (4) October, 
1918 ; (5) November, 1918. 

Chinese Village, Tales of a WM. L. HALL, Asisi, (1) November, 

1918; (2) April, 1919. 
Comedy of Ignorance, The LIN Pa-Cm, Chinese Student s Monthly, 

June, 1919. 

E. The Press 

China and the American Newspaper Editor Millard s Review, May 
3, 1919. 

China Needs Publicity C. Y. CHEN, Millard s Review, June, 1919. 

Chinese Press towards Christianity, Attitude of W. P. CHEN, 
Chinese Recorder, December, 1918. 

What the Chinese Read To-day H.. C. MENG, " China in 1918." 
Press of China, The J. P. DONOVAN, Asiatic Review, April, 1919. 

F. Christian Literature 

Christian Literature in China E. C. LOBENSTINE, Report of Foreign 

Missions Conference, 1919. 
Christian Literature Essentials in China To-day D. WILLARD LYON, 

China Mission Year Book, 1918. 

Christian Literature in China, Symposium Chinese Recorder, July, 
1918. 

Christian Literature Council in China, Plans of New International 
Review of Missions, April, 1919. 

Home Training of the Blind in China Miss S. J. OAKLAND, Chinese 

Recorder, April, 1919. 
Illiteracy in the Christian Church in China S. G. PEILL AND F. S. 

ONLEY, China Mission Year Book, 1918. 
Literature Needs of the Christian Church in China Chinese Recorder, 

June, 1919. 



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352 APPENDICES 

Chinese Labour Corps in France, Condition of tJic HOLLINGTON K. 
TONG, Mallard s Eeview, December 14, 1918. 

Christian Expeditionary Force Somewhere in France The World 
Outlook, December, 14, 1918. 

Christianity and Chinese Students in North America T. N. Li, Chinese 
Student s Christian Journal, November, 1918. 

Emigration, A Statistical Study of China s C. K. CHUN, Chinese 
Student s Monthly, April, 1919. 

Emigration Problem, China s T. B. D., "China in 1919." 

. I. Internal Problems 

Chinese National Movement, The New HOLLINGTON K. TONG, Millard s 
Eeview, June 21, 1919. 

Chinese. Railways, Internationalization of D. K. LIEU, The Chinese 
Social and Political Science Keview, June, 1919. 

Constitutional Situation in China, TJie W. W. WJLLOUGHBY, Far 
Eastern Keview, November, 1918. 

Constitutional Development (1917-1918) L. R. O. BEVAN, China 
Mission Year Book, 1918. 

Constructive Plan for China, A Asia, March, 1919. 

Development of China, International SUN YAT-SEN, Far Eastern 
Review, March, 1919. 

" Open- Door" in Manchuria, Violating the Millard s Review, July 

20, 1918. 

Progress of Democracy in China, Causes which Have Impeded the W. 
W. WILLOUGHBY, "China in 1918." 

Problem of Peking, The PUTNAM WEALE, Asia, April, 1919. 
J. International Relationships 

America and China FRANK H. HODGES, Millard s Review, June 

21, 1919. 

America s New Financial Policy in China Millard s Review, August 
3, 1918. 

American Policy in China JAMES FRANCIS ABBOT, Asia, September, 
1919. 

China, Colony or Nation? "AsiATicus," Asia, March, 1919. 
China at the Peace Conference P. GALLAGHER, Asia, April, 1919. 

China and a Static Peace CHUAN CHU, The Chinese Student s 
Monthly, December, 1918, 



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354 APPENDICES 

Regulations Governing Jurisdiction Over Aliem of Non-Treaty Coun 
tries T. F. HUANG, The Chinese Social and Political Science 
Keview, June, 1919. 

Shantung , -The "Alsace-Lorraine" of the Orient H. K. TONG, Millard s 
Keview, May 10, 1918. 

Tariff Question, Our F. H. HUANG, Chinese Student s Monthly, 
January, 1919. 

Western Characteristics Needed in China JULEAN ARNOLD, Millard s 
Eeview, April 19, 1919. 



K. China s Potentialities 

American Commerce be Extended in China?, How Can C. CHUN, The 
Chinese Student s Monthly, March, 1919. 

Business Men Must Learn Chinese Language W. B. PETTUS, Millard s 
Review, July 27, 1918. 

China LEWIS HODOUS, Foreign Mission Year Book of North Ameri 
ca, 1919. 

China Worth Helping?, Is H. K. TONG, Millard s Review, July 
27, 1918. 

China s Contributions to the World, Some of YA-MEI KIN, "China in 
1918." 

Chinese Civilization, Distinguishing Characteristics ofS. C. Lu, The 
Chinese Student s Monthly, April, 1919. 

China Oivns and Operates Largest Publishing House in Orient Y. L. 
CHANG, Millard s Review, August 24, 1918. 

Chemical Industry in Kwantung Province YANG Sz CHU, Journal of 
the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, VOL. L, 
1919. 

Commercial and Industrial Progress and Prospects, China s JULEAN 
ARNOLD, China Mission Year Book, 1918. 

Commercial Press Ltd., A Chinese Educational Force DR. FONG SEC, 
"China in 1918." 

Canned Goods Industry in China, Development of the Y. L. CHANG, 
Millard s Review, October 19, 1918. 

Contemporary Chinese Drama SOONG TSUNG-FAUNG, "China in 1918." 

Department Store, China Soon to Have Another Big Y. L. CHANG, 
Millard s Review, August 19, 1918. 



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356 APPENDICES 

Reclamation of Waste Material Far Eastern Review, April, 1919. 

Railway Timber, China to Produce Her Own H. K. TONG. Millard s 
Review, August 10, 1918. 

Silk Industry and Reforms, China s Y. L. CHANG, Millard s Review, 
July 20, 1919. 

Soya Bean, The Romance of the L. S. PATEN, Asia, January, 1919. 

Trade Possibility of the Far East, The M. A. OUDIN, Millard s 
Review, June 1, 1919. 

Transportation as a Factor in China s Industrial Future PETER JONES, 
Millard s Review, February 8, 1919. 

Tobacco Company, A Successful Chinese T. C. TSANG, Millard s 
Review, June 15, 1919. 

Timber Rafts on the Lower Yangtsze Statistical Department of the 
Inspectorate General of Customs, Shanghai. 

L. Religion 

Ancestor Worship London and China Express, March 6, 1919. 

Christianity in Confucian Lands, Presentation of Board of Mission 
ary Preparation, New York. 

Christianity Give to China that the Other Religions of China Cannot 
Give?, What Can C. L. OGILVIE, Chinese Recorder, November, 
1918. 

Confucianism, What I think of E. W. LUH, Chinese Student s 
Christian Journal, January, 1919. 

Confucian God-Idea, The Y. Y. Tsu, Chinese Recorder, May, 1919. 

Confucian Way of Thinking of the World and God, The DR. LIN BOOM 
KENG, Asiatic Review, April, 1919. 

Contribution of Christianity to Chinese Life?, What is the Special F. 
M. WOODS, Chinese Recorder, October, 1918. 

Early Chinese Religion, A Study in ARTHUR MORLEY, New China 
Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, May, 1919. 

Fancies, Follies and Falsities VARIOUS MISSIONARIES, China s 
Millions, September, 1918. 

God in Chinese Writing, The Symbol for C. WAIDTLOW, Chinese 
Recorder, (1) July, 1918; (2) February, 1919. 

Isles of the Blest, Chinese MAJOR W. YETTS, (noted) in the Journal 
of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. L 
1919. 



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358 APPENDICES 

Invasion of China by Brewery Interests W. J. WEN, Missionary 

Review of the World, iVlay, 1919. 
Lawlessness in China EVAN MORGAN, China Mission Year Book, 

1918. 

Opium Revival ISAAC MASON, China Mission Year Book, 1918. 
Opium Trade Revived W. E. W., New Republic, September, 1918. 

Soldier Curse in China, The RODNEY GILBERT, Far Eastern Review, 
May, 1919. 

O. Social Problems 

Background of Chinese Philosophy, The L. K. TAO, Asia, 1918. 
China s Social Challenge J. S. BURGESS, Survey, September 17, 1918. 

Chinese Festivals, Permanent Values in A. GRAINGER, Chinese 
Recorder, November, 1918. 

Christianization of Life in China, The J. S. BURGESS, Chinese Re 
corder, April, 1919. 

Church and Its Community, The G. D. WILDEK, Chinese Recorder, (1) 
August, 1918 ; (2) September, 1918. 

Colonization in Kirin, A Report on J. BAILIE, Millard s Review, 
March 29, 1919. 

Agricultural Education in China, Missionaries Begin J. L. BUCK, 
Millard s Review, September 14, 1918. 

American Educational Influence in China AMOS P. WILDER, Mission 
Field, June, 1919. 

Chinese Education G. KING, Far Eastern Review, May, 1919. 

Curriculum in Arithmetic for a Group of Chinese Girls, A IDA B. 
LEWIS, Educational Review, July, 1918. 

Education in the South of the United Status and in China C. M. 
LACY SITES, Educational Review, October, 1918. 

Educational Progress in China, A Survey of~L. R. 0. BEVAN, "China 
in 1918." 

Future Place of Education in China, The P. W. Kuo, Chinese 
Recorder, January, 1919. 

Government Education FONG F. SEC, Educational 1 eview, (1) July, 
1918; (2) October, 1918; (3) January, 1919; (4) April, 1919. 

Higher Education in China with Particular Reference to Medical 
Training, Some Problems of HAROLD BALME, Educational Re 
view, April, 1919. 












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360 APPENDICES 

Chinese Girl Breaks with the Old Conventions, Wfien the TYLER 
DENNETT, World Outlook, August, 1918. 

Co-education at the Canton Christian College Chinese Recorder, July, 
1918. 

Concerning Hunanese Women I. M. WIKANDER, Women s Interna 
tional Quarterly, April, 1919. 

Governmejit Education for Girls in China M. E. FAITHFULL-DAVIES, 
Women s International Quarterly, July, 1918. 

Personal Work Movement and the Y. W. C. A. in China, The RUTH 
PAXSON, Women s International Quarterly, October, 1918. 

Uplifting Women, in ChinaFar Eastern Eeview, November, 1918, 

Women in China To-day DR. IDA KAHN, "China in 1918." 

Women s Work MRS. E. J. WARD, Millard s Eeview, June 14, 1919. 

Women in the Protestant Missionary Movement in China, The Place of 
LUELLA MINER, China Mission Year Book, 1918. 

Work for Chinese Women Far Eastern Review, August, 1918. 
Q. Education 

Agriculture into our Middle and Primary Schools, Practical Plans for 
the Introduction of T. L. BUCK, Chinese Recorder, May, 1919. 

Agriculture and Missions in China, Practical J. REISNER, Millard s 
Review, November 2, 1918. 

Agricultural Lecture Train in China, The First H. K. TONG, Millard s 
Review, September 21, 1918. 

Aims to be Sought in the Christian Educational System in China, The 
LUELLA MINER, Educational Review, January, 1919. 

Vocational Education in China MONLIN CHIANG, "China in 1918." 

Wonder Tale of some Trees and an Irishman, The WILLARD PRICE, 
World Outlook, August, 1918. 

R. Medfcal 

Awakening to the Value of Scientific Medical Training China 
Medical Journal, January, 1919. 

Chinese Chemist s Shop A. G. KING, Far Eastern Review, January, 
1919. 

Chinese Medicine, Notes on K. C. WANG, China Medical Journal, 
July, 1918. 



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362 APPENDICES 

Chinese Neighbor, Your S. K. WINSLOW, World Outlook, August, 
1918. 

Development of Church Order in Connection with the Work of the C.I.M., 
TheD. E. HOSTE, China Mission Year Book, 1918. 

Evangelization of Honan, The MURDOCH MACKENZIE, Chinese Re 
corder, July, 1918. 

Evangelization in Provinces Manchuria W. MC-NAUGHTAN, Chinese 
Recorder, February, 1919. 

Executive Committee in Modern Mission Administration, The Larger 
Use of 3. T. PROCTOR, China Mission Year Book, 1918. 

Gibraltar of China, Taking the DAVID Yui, Student s World, July, 
1918. 

How We Built the Hospital at Lo Ting, South China F. DICKSON, 
Chinese Recorder, December, 1918. 

Institutional Church in China F. H. THROOP, Chinese Recorder, 
April, 1918. 

Institutional Church, Nanchang, Central F. C. GALE, Chinese 
Recorder, April, 1919. 

Institutional Church to Other Christian Organizations with Institutional 
Features, The Relation of the SIDNEY McKEE, Chinese Recorder, 
April, 1919. 

Man Power in Christian Warfare J. L. STUART, Chinese Recorder, 
February, 1919. 

Mission and the Church West China Missionary News, November, 
1918. 

Missions in China, Svtne Impressions of E. D. SOPER, Chinese 
Recorder, May, 1919. 

Salt and its Savor in China CHARLES E. SCOTT, Missionary Review 
of the World, (I) February, 1919; (II) April, 1919. 

Student s Christian Association of the Canton Christian College 
Chinese Student s Christian Journal, January, 1919. 

Self-Support, A Case of Real (E. J. M. DICKSON) E. A. JONES, 
Chinese Recorder, June, 1919. (See also page 575.) 

Self-Support, An Experiment in R. O. JOLIFFE, West China Mission 
ary News, October, 1918. 

Training of Missionaries in China, The F. K. SANDERS, China 
Mission Year Book, 1918. 



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364 APPENDICES 

Progress of Forestry in China JOHN REISXER, Millard s Review, May, 
24, 1919. 

Putting Missions o>i a New Basis PAUL HUTCHINSON , Millard s 
Review, February, 1919. 

Progressive Pla is for Christian Work in China as Seen in the Reports 
of the China Continuation Committee Ohinese Recorder, June, 
1919. 

Progress Towards Legal Reform, China s H. K. TOXG, Millard s 
Review, September 14, 1918. 

Scratching the Scales off the Dragon s Back JAMES LEWIS, World. 
Outlook, August, 1918. 

Statement to th>; Christians of China with Regard to the Chinese Mission 
to Yunnan J. Y. CHEVG, Chinese Recorder, January, 1919. 



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366 APPENDICES 

4. Mission Council 

There shall be a Mission Council consisting of a Chairman, elected 
by the Mission, the Chairman of the four Standing Committees, 
the two China Councilmen, and one member from each Station. 
The University is to be considered as a Station for this purpose. 

Each Station shall present to the biennial meeting three 
nominees, if possible, for Station Member of the Mission Council. 
Should a Station fail to present at least three names, the Mission, 
through its nominating Committee, may nominate one or more 
members of that station for this position. From these nominees 
the Mission shall elect by ballot the Station s representative on the 
Mission Council and his alternate. Vacancies, other than Station 
representative, which may occur on the Council, shall be filled by the 
Council. 

5. Meetings 

The Mission Council shall meet annually and shall transact all the 
business now transacted by the Mission, except as otherwise provided 
for, including the business of the present Force Committee and 
Finance Committee. 

6. Mission Control 

The control of the Mission over the Mission Council shall be 
exercised through the election of its members and by resolutions and 
recommendations to it, approved at the biennial meeting. The 
Mission Council shall be bound by such resolutions and recommenda 
tions as far as questions of policy and general procedure are 
concerned. The Mission Council shall retain its executive functions 
during Mission meeting. 

7. Ad Interim Executive Committee 

There shall be an Ad Interim Executive Committee consisting of 
the Chairman of the Mission Council and the Chairman of the four 
Standing Committees. The two China Councilmen may attend the 
meetings of the Ad Interim Committee, but without vote. Actions 
of the Ad Interim Committee must be carried by a four-fifths vote. 
These actions shall be reported at once to the other members of the 
Mission Council and to the Stations, and shall stand as Mission 
actions unless dissented from by one-half the remaining members of 
the Mission Council (the two China Councilmen to be counted 
among these remaining members) within four weeks from the date 
that notice of such action was sent by the Committee. 

The Ad Interim Executive Committee, shall, ordinarily, hold two 
meetings each year, preferably at about equal intervals between the 
annual meetings of the Mission Council. Emergency and routine 



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APPENDIX C 

PLAN OF UNION AND DOCTRINAL BASIS FOR THE 

UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA* 

Plan of Union 

I. Name: The name shall be "The United Church (or The 
Uniting Church" of Christ in China." (Note. The English name 
finally adopted will depend upon the decision with reference to the 
name in Chinese. See Chinese Minutes.) 

II. Object: The object of the Union shall be to bind the 
churches together into one body with a view to developing a self- 
supporting, self-governing, and self-propagating Chinese Church, 
which shall present a united living testimony to Christ and worthily 
represent to the world the Christian ideal. 

III. Government: The United Church of Christ in China shall 
administer its affairs through the Local Church (Parish), the District 
Association (Presbytery), the Divisional Council (Synod), and the 
General Assembly. 

(1) A Local Church (Parish) is a company of believers regularly 
organized and assembling statedly for public worship in one or more 
places, and recognized by the District Association (Presbytery) in 
whose bounds it is located. The method of organization of the local 
church is to be decided by the District Association (Presbytery). 

(2) A District Association (Presbytery) is composed of all the 
ministers, and such men and women evangelists as have been 
licensed by the Association, and the lay representatives of the 
churches within a defined district. The lay representatives .shall be 
elected according to the following rule ; namely: Each Local Church 
shall appoint at least one lay representative, but churches with two 
hundred or more in active membership may appoint at least two lay 
representatives; and churches with five hundred or more in active 
membership may appoint at least three lay representatives. With the 
permission of the District Association the representation of the 
churches of the Association may be increased. The lay delegates shall 
be elders or other church officers. 



*Prepared by the Conference Committee on Church Union 
appointed by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Churches in 
China, the Churches of the London Missionary Society and the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and adopted 
at Nanking, January, 1919. 







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370 APPENDICES 

(c) The Power of the General Assembly. The General Assembly 
shall have power to receive and issue all appeals, memorials, 
references, and complaints, affecting the doctrine, government, and 
constitution of the church, that are brought before it in regular order 
from the inferior judicatories, but appeals in cases originating in the 
session may not be carried beyond the Divisional Council. 

The General Assembly shall also have power of review and 
control, reviewing the records of each Divisional Council, approving 
or censuring the same, and it shall constitute a bond of union, peace, 
correspondence, and mutual confidence among all the judicatories of 
the church. 

To the General Assembly also belongs the power to decide all 
controversies respecting doctrine and church government; to point 
out and, if necessary, reprove cases of error in doctrine or in practice 
in any Local Church, Districal Association (Presbytery), or Divi 
sional Council (Synod); to consider the petitions for the division of 
existing Divisional Councils (Synods) or the erection of new ones; to 
superintend all grades of education in schools under the control 
of the church, especially the curricula of its theological institutions; 
to decide upon the qualifications for ordination to the ministry, and to 
regulate the reception of ministers from other denominations ; 
to regulate official correspondence with other denominations ; 
to inaugurate missionary enterprises and advance the same and to 
further evangelistic work; to appoint commissions, committees, and 
officers for all branches of work, give them instructions, delegate 
them needed authority and receive their reports; to repress 
schismatical contentions and disputations, and in general, as respects 
its lower judicatories, to endeavor by exhortation and instruction to 
correct conduct, broaden the spirit of charity, and confirm them in 
truth and holiness. 

(d) Meetings and officers. The General Assembly shall meet 
once every three years. Its officers shall be a Moderator, a Vice 
Moderator, a Stated Clerk, a Temporary Clerk, and a Treasurer. 
The Moderator, the Vice Moderator, and the Temporary Clerk shall 
be elected at each regular meeting of the General Assembly and shall 
be chosen from among the delegates present. The Stated Clerk and 
Treasurer need not necessarily be elected from the delegates and 
their terms of office shall be determined by the General Assembly. 

IV. Amendments. If the General Assembly shall propose to 
alter, increase, or diminish any of the constitutional powers of 
District Associations (Presbyteries; or Divisional Councils (Synods), 
it shall be necessary to transmit the proposed action to all the 
District Associations (Presbyteries). If, by the time the General 
Assembly shall meet again, at least two-thirds of the District Associa 
tions (Presbyteries) have reported in writing approving the proposed 
action, the Assembly may declare the sections approved to be part of 
the Constitution of the Church. 






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APPENDIX D 

PROVISIONAL CHARTER OF 

FUKIEN CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 

This Instrument Witnesseth that the Eegents of the University 
of the State of New York have granted this provisional charter 
incorporating Charles W. Congdon, Howard C. Eobbins, William W. 
Carman, William I. Chamberlain, William E. Strong, Samuel 
Thorne, Jr., John F. Goucher, William H. S. Demarest, John W. 
Wood, Frank Mason North, and William Bancroft Hill and their 
associates and successors, under the corporate name of Fukien 
Christian University, to be located at Foochow, in the province of 
Fukien, in China, with twelve trustees, or more, as hereinafter pro 
vided, to be at first the eleven persons named as incorporators, and 
one other to be chosen by them to complete their board, to hold, the 
first four, through the year 1918, the second four, through the year 
1919, and the last four, through the year 1920, and their successors to 
hold for terms of three years to be chosen, four each year, one by the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, one by the 
Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East, one by the Board 
of Foreign Missions of t ie Methodist Episcopal Church, and one by 
the Board of Foreign Missions of the Keformed Church in America. 

In furtherance of its intended aiding of youth in China to 
acquire literary, scientific, and professional education, the university 
may establish and maintain elementary, secondary, and higher 
departments; but it shall not have power to confer degrees, except 
such as shall be authorized by the absolute charter by which this 
provisional one will be replaced, if within five years the corporation 
shall acquire resources and equipment, of the value of at least five 
hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), available for its use and 
support and sufficient and suitable for its chartered purposes, in the 
judgment of the Eegents of the University of this State, and by 
maintaining an institution of educational usefulness and character 
satisfactory to them; and, until the granting of the absolute charter, 
suitable degrees of The University of the State of New York will be 
conferred upon the graduates of the university hereby incorporated 
who. in the judgment of the said Eegents, shall duly earn the same. 

Other incorporated missionary organizations may, at any time, 
be affiliated with and made constituent, trustee-electing members of 
the corporation of the university, by the favoring vote of the 
managing boards of all of its then existing such constituent bodies ; 
and each such so added constituent body shall be entitled to choose, 
as its representative, or representatives, to hold for a term of three 



APPENDIX E 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
ANTI-OPIUM ASSOCIATION, PEKING 

Article I 

This Association shall be called the International Anti-Opium 
Association, Peking. 

Article II 

The Head Office of this Association shall be fro. 1 Mei Cha 
Hutung. 

Article III. Objects 

The objects of this Association shall be : 

A. To secure the restriction to the production and use of opium, 
morphine, cocaine, heroine, and allied drugs, to legitimate uses. 

B. To procure comprehensive legislation, and adequate enforcement, 
prohibiting the planting and cultivation of the poppy throughout 
Chinese territory. 

C. To assist in erecting an international system whereby the illicit 
traffic in the above-mentioned drugs shall be entirely suppressed. 

D. To cooperate with Branches of this Association and similar 
organizations in China, and elsewhere. 

Article IV. Methods 

Toward these ends the Association proposes : 

1. To secure the immediate enforcement of the Articles of the 
Hague International Opium Convention of 1912-13. 

2. To conduct an investigation into the prevalence of these 
drugs, and their derivatives, and to compile such facts and statistics 
as will be useful in the attainment of the objects stated above. 

3. To conduct a campaign of publicity and education, through 
the press, lectures, and special literature, with a view to creating an 
effective public sentiment against the wrongful use of these drugs. 

4. To encourage in every way within its power such dispensaries 
or drug companies as demonstrate their sympathy with the objects 
of the Association. 



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376 APPENDICES 

Article VIII. Amendments 

This constitution shall be amended only by a two-thirds vote of 
those present at the Annual Meeting, and upon a week s notice 
properly announced in the press. 

Members of the society have the right to propose amendments 
which shall be voted upon at the Annual Meeting, provided such 
proposals are submitted to the Board of Directors two weeks in 
advance. 

Note: Branches of this Association may be formed in other 
centers on communication with the Central Association. 



Ai PtNOIX f 

NORTH CMNA UMQN LANOUAOI toioot. 



". . 



378 APPENDICES 

The School is located in Peking, because no school outside of 
Peking could secure such a staff of Chinese teachers or a group of 
foreigners so well qualified to assist students in mastering the language 
and in obtaining a knowledge of things Chinese. Peking is the 
capital of the country ; it is the educational as well as the political 
center of C hina, and the intellectual atmosphere of the place stimu 
lates the students to study their subject in its many phases. The 
bracing climate of the north makes hard work possible. The 1 eking- 
ese, or northern Mandarin dialect, which is taught, carries with it the 
prestige of the capital. The presence in Peking of some two hundred 
and fifty missionaries engaged in all forms of missionary work, of the 
large foreign business and diplomatic community, and of 800,000 
Chinese makes this the most effective and practical training center, 
the instruction being given in the environment where it is to be used 
and by those who have first-hand knowledge of the subjects they 
teach. 

For similar reasons the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller 
Foundation has located its principal medical college in Peking, and 
four of the leading British and American missions have united in 
Peking University. 

The course of study extends over five years. The students 
attend the School for the first one or two years only. They then 
scatter throughout China to various centers, where they combine 
work and study, which can still be carried on under the supervision 
of the School, provision being made for periodic examinations. The 
students are in greatest need of actual instruction during the first 
year, which is one of beginnings, and this system provides for their 
first study being done under trained teachers. The result is that the 
percentage of those who acquire a fluent command of the language 
is much larger than under the old system, according to which 
students who did not know how to study languages were put with 
so-called teachers who did not know how to teach. The first year in 
China is usually a trying one intellectually, physically, and spiritu 
ally, and new arrivals need all possible help in making the necessary 
adjustments. 

At the present time the Principal of the School, Mr. W. B. 
Pettus, who is a secretary of the Young Men s Christian Association, 
is supported by that organization, and his services are lent to the 
School. Mrs. Minnie M. Anderson, the Dean of Women, is sup 
ported by a special contribution from the Stewart Evangelistic Fund. 
The volunteer help available is efficient and is large and varied, but 
there are departments which require full-time service. The staff is 
inadequate for the present needs of the School, and the organizations 
supporting the School are invited to follow the example of the 
Young Men s Christian Association and the Stewart Evangelistic 
Fund by providing the following additional staff : 

A professor to specialize in the studies of the later years of the 
course in order to standardize the work done and stimulate continued 
study. 






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380 APPENDICES 

III. Officers 

The officers of the Board shall consist of a president, a vice 
president, a secretary, and a treasurer who shall discharge the functions 
usually attached to these offices. 

IV. Financial Responsibility 

Financial responsibility for current expenses shall be assumed by 
the societies represented on the Board of Directors by 

(1) 10 % of the total amount by pro rata assessment on the 
societies. 

(2) 60 % of the total amount by assessment of each society 
in proportion to the number of its members using the School 
during any year, students taking less than full work m the School 
to be counted in proportion to the amount of work they take. 

(3) 30 % of the total amount by assessment on each society 
in proportion to the total number of its members in the field 
contributing students. 

Financial responsibility for plant and equipment shall be 
assumed by the societies in proportion to the number of its members 
in the field contributing members to the School. 

V. Admission to the Board 

Subsequent to the original organization representation on the 
Board shall be granted any society willing to agree to this basis of 
organization upon the approval by a two-thirds vote of the members 
of the Board of Directors present at a meeting, provided at least two 
weeks notice of the application and time of meeting has been given. 

VI. Withdrawal from tfi2 Union 

Any society may withdraw from the Union upon six months 
notice to that effect. 

VII. Voting 

Upon written authorization to the secretary any representative 
may send proxy. 

A majority of the members of the Board shall constitute a 
quorum. 

VIII. Tuition 

Tuition fees shall be charged at rates fixed by the Board of 
Directors. 






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APPENDIX G 

THE UNIFICATION OF THE LANGUAGE OF CHINA 

Actions of the Board of Education and of the Chinese National 
Educational Conference 

Mandate 75, Ministry of Education 

" We find that the proposal for the standardization of the pro 
nunciation of the national language had already received sanction 
at a central educational conference held under the auspices of the 
Ministry of Learning in the former Ching Dynasty. 

" Since the inauguration of the Republic, this Ministry has fully 
recognized that in order to standardize our national pronunciation, 
we must necessarily begin by preparing a standard phonetic system. 
Therefore, a standard pronunciation conference was specially called 
in the first year of the Republic (1912) for the purpose of discussing 
this matter. The members of that conference discussed and adopted 
a phonetic system containing thJrty-nine symbols, to be used in 
a similar way to our present system of Fanch ieh. They have also 
decided by a majority vote the proper pronunciation of the com 
monly used characters. They then requested this Ministry to devise 
methods for the universal adoption of this system, as on record. 

" In the fourth year of the Republic (1915), schools to teach the 
phonetic symbols were established as an experiment, and this system 
has developed very extensively during the three years following its 
inception. In this present year, the principals of the higher normal 
schools of the whole country have held a conference at which it was 
resolved to establish in all such higher schools a special course for 
the teaching of the phonetic symbols, with the object of training 
teachers of our national language. The resolution in question has 
been submitted to this Ministry, and copies of the same have been 
sent to all the higher normal schools with an order that it be 
carried out. 

" However, it is apprehended that these symbols, not having 
been officially promulgated by this Ministry, may undergo some 















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41 



384 APPENDICES 

"WE, THEREFORE, now order, that from the autumn of this 
current year, beginning in the (primary) schools (|H Jl; 4 $0 for 
the first and second years, all shall be taught the National Spoken 
Language, rather than the National Classical Language (fc 1^1 ^C ^S 
!$ tu 2$C)- Thus, the spoken and written languages will become one. 
This Ministry requests all officials to take notice and act accordingly, 
and require all schools under their jurisdiction to respect and carry 
into effect this order." 

Government Propaganda 

On October 22, 1919, when the fifth Chinese National Educational 
Conference was held, at Taiyiianfu, Shansi, unanimous approval was 
secured on the following bill which was submitted to the Minister of 
Education and the Educational Associations of the Provinces. 

Propagation of the Phonetic System in Order to Bring Abcut 
Uniformity in the Spoken and Written Languages of China 

"The great obstruction to educational progress in China has 
boon that of the bewildering variety of the dialects and stylos used 
in the provinces. The moderate reformers recommend the use of 
simplified Wen-li, while the impetuous reformers advocate the 
exclusive use of the phonetic system. It is not unlikely that the 
ideal course would be the combination of both recommendations, 
especially in view of the publication of the dictionai-y of the 
phonetics, which is now a fait accompli. The following ^lodus 
oparandi is strongly recommended : 

"(1) Let all normal schools take up the phonetic course and 
follow the phonetic dictionary in teaching the pronunciation of the 
letters of the phonetic system. 

" (V) During the summer and winter vacations, the educational 
bureaus of the various districts as well as the provincial educational 
associations should open special classes for all teachers of primary 
schools to enable the latter to understand the phonetic system, the 
phonetic dictionary being consulted in all cases for accurate 
pronunciation. 

"(3) The teachers of primary schools should in future be placed 
under obligation to learn the national language and the phonetic 
system. 



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386 



APPENDICES 





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390 



INDEX 



By - products of the survey, 
325-8. 

Canton Christian College, 156-7 ; 
agricultural work, 167-9. 

Central China Christian Educa 
tional Association action re 
garding agricultural education, 
159. 

Chambers of Commerce, con 
ference of British, 3o. 

Changes of emphasis in mission 
ary work, 65-73. 

Charitable institutions, promo 
tion of, 213-14. 

Chen, T. S., visit to Yunnan, 99. 

Cheng, C. Y., statement on 
Chinese Home Missionary 
Society, 95-100. 

Chiang, Monlin, 45-51. 

China Baptist Publication Society 
publications, 236. 

China Christian Educational As 
sociation, action regarding 
agricultural education, 160 ; 
teacher training in China, 
126-7. 

China Continuation Committee 
publications, 236-7. 

China for Christ Movement, 
59-60, 324. 

China in contemporaneous litera 
ture, 247-74 ; outstanding 
books, 249 ; biography, 2")0-1 ; 
poetry and verse, 251-2 ; studies 
of China, 252-4 ; romance and 
fact, 254-6 ; the press, 256 ; 
Christian literature, 256-7 ; 
work on the borders, 257 ; 
international references, 257-8; 
Chinese abroad, 258-9 ; internal 
problems, 259-60; international 
relationships, 260-2 ; potential 
ities, 263 ; industrial develop 
ment, 263-4 ; religion, 264-6 ; 
Moslems, 266 ; moral problems, 
26&-7 ; social problems, 267-8 ; 
Chinese women, 268 ; educa 
tion, 268-70; medical, 270; 



Christian movement, 270-4 ; 
bibliography, 345-64. 

China Medical Board, 184-9. 

China s potentialities, 263. 

China s religions, spirit and 
character of approach to, 
275-80. 

China since the World War, 
1-16 ; armistice, 1 ; China s 
hope and faith, 1-2 ; Chinese 
representation at the Peace 
Conference, 3 ; China s pro 
posals, 3-4 ; Treaty of Peace, 
4-5 ; reasons for China s failure, 
5-6 ; China and the League, 6 ; 
attitude of America and 
Japan, fr-7 ; proposals of direct 
negotiations, 7 ; Siberia, 7 ; 
foreign loans, 7-8 ; consortium, 
8 ; internal affairs, 8-10 ; pro 
posals for internal peace, 10-11 ; 
Shanghai conference, 11-12; 
further peace proposals, 12-14 ; 
other internal ail airs, 14-15 ; 
traditional basis of China s 
social and economic life, 15 ; 
present situation, 15-16. 

Chinese abroad, articles on, 
258-9. 

Chinese Church, union move 
ments in, 65-7 ; recognition of, 
67-8 ; social movements in, 
70-1. 

Chinese home missionary move 
ment, 62, 95-100. 

Chinese Home Missionary Society 
publications, 237. 

Chinese press, attitude, 256. 

Chinese Survey report, 323-4. 

Christian literature, 256-7. 

Christian Literature Society 
publications, 237-8. 

Christian Missions in Many 
Lands mission work, 290-5. 

Christian movement in China, 
books and articles on, 270-4. 

Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui, 
66 ; missionary work, 100-3. 

Church federations, 76. 



392 



INDEX 



in union, 65-7 ; recognition of 
the Chinese Church, 67-9; 
social application, 69-71 ; the 
Church and political salvation, 
70-1 ; phonetic writing, 71-2 ; 
religious and vocational educa 
tion, 72-3. 

Evangelism, 81-121 ; cooperation 
in, 77. 

Evangelists, need of trained, 146. 

Evangelization of students, 1 40-6. 

Evangel Press publications, 238-9. 

Exchange, effect of, 298-9. 

Exports, 25-6. 

Expressional activities in reli 
gious education, 135. 

Farmers in North Anhwei, of 
teaching, 165. 

Federations, church, 76. 

Feng, Genera], 58-9 ; work among 
troops, 281-6. 

Field boundaries, 326. 

Financial emergencies, Anglican 
missionary society, 102. 

Five-year -teacher-training-pro 
gram, 66. 

Flour, 20-1. 

Foodstuffs, 22-3. 

Foreign loans, 6-7. 

Forestry, schools of, 154-7, 169-72. 

Foster, Arnold, obituary notice, 
332-4. 

Friends Mission publications, 
239. 

Fukien Christian Educational 
Association, action regarding 
agricultural education, 160-1. 

Fukien Christian University, pro 
visional charter, 372-3. 

Garland, S. J., 176-83. 

Gibson, John Campbell, obituary 

notice, 334-5. 
Gospel Hell, 99. 
Government normal schools, 

123-4. 
Government system of phonetic 

writing, 176-83. 



Government vs. people, 54. 
Greene, Eoger S., 184-9. 

Harbor Mission in Hongkong,213. 

Health and Sanitation Associa 
tion in Foochow, report of, 
214-17. 

Health promotion, examples of, 
205-6. 

History of China, books on, 252-4. 

Hopkins, F. J., 290-5. 

Hospitals, aid of China Medical 
Board to, 188-9. 

Hospital efficiency survey, 323. 

Hospitals, government, 321-2. 

Huchow Women s School, 173-5 ; 
objectives, 173 ; care of chil 
dren, 174 ; theory and practice, 
175. 

Idolatry, revival of, 82-4. 

Illiterate blind, teaching of, 183. 

Illiterates, teaching of, 180. 

Imports and exports, 23-6. 

Independent union churches, 
79-80. 

India survey, 315-16. 

Industrial development in China, 
books and articles on, 263-4. 

Industrial work, importance of, 
162. 

Industry in China, 17-36. 

Interchurch World Movement, 
63, 324 ; reaction on Chinese 
Church, 68-9. 

Internal affairs of China, 8-16. 

Internal problems of China, 
articles on, 259-60. 

International Anti-Opium As 
sociation, 218-24 ; burning of 
opium, 218-19 ; local Associa 
tion, 219-20 ; full-time secre 
tary, 220-1 ; work of Associa 
tion, 221-4. 

International cooperation in 
anti-opium campaign, 221. 

International relationships in 
China, books and articles on, 
257-62. 






- 









^_^ 



394 



INDEX 



Home Missionary Movement, 
95-100 ; missionary work of the 
Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui, 
100-3 ; denominational mission 
ary societies, 103-8; women s 
missionary societies, 106-8. 

Missionary pioneers, biographical 
sketches, 250-1. 

Missionary Training, University 
of Nanking Department of, 
304-7. 

Missions Building, 62, 301. 

Modern Chinese literature, trend, 
225-34 ; best selling books, 225 ; 
books on literature, 225-6 ; war 
books, 226 ; use of Mandarin 
literature, 226-7 ; in science, 
228 ; student literature, 228-9 ; 
magazines, 229-30 ; changing 
viewpoint of scientists, 230-2 ; 
theological viewpoint, 232-4. 

Mohammedanism, 91. 

Monlin Chiang, 45-51. 

Moral problems, books and 
articles on, 266-7. 

Moral welfare work in China, 
190-5 ; absence of exact in 
formation, 190 ; revival of 
opium, 190-1 ; prostitution, 
191 ; Christian forces at work, 
191-5 ; anti-opium movement, 
193 ; present needs, 195. 

Moslems in China, books and 
articles on, 266 ; work among, 
287-9. 

Motor traffic and launches, 29-31. 

Music prepared by Laura M. 
White, 240. 

Nanking cooperative activity, 
77-9. 

National Salvation Society, 71. 

New China movement, 42-3. 

Normal schools, 123-6 ; govern 
ment, 123-4 ; .Roman Catholic, 
124 ; Protestant, 1 24-6. 

North China Union Language 
School, 377-81. 

Nurseries, 171. 



Obituaries, 331-44. 

Officials, overthrow of pro- 
Japanese, 56-7. 

Opium and morphia, 58 ; revival 
of, and campaign against, 
190-3 ; fight against smuggling, 
223 ; wholesale burning of, 
218-19. 

Outdoor athletics, 213. 

Peace conference in China, 40. 

Peace conference and Chinese 
representation, 3-4. 

Peace Treaty, 57. 

Peking Christian Student Work 
Union, work and plans, 
308-11. 

Phonetic writing, 60-1, 71-2. 

Phonetic writing in China, pro 
motion of, 176-83 ; government 
system, 176-7 ; preparation of 
literature, 177 ; progress in 
teaching, 1 78-9 ; local varia 
tions, 180-1 ; sale of litera 
ture, 181 ; League of Service, 
182-3; Mandate of Ministry of 
Education, 382-5. 

Pioneers, biographical sketches 
of, 250-1. 

Playground service, 206-7. 

Poetry and verse, Chinese, 251-2. 

Political salvation, interest of 
Church in, 70-1. 

Poor, work among, 209-10. 

Population estimates, 321. 

Poppy cultivation, recrudescence 
of, 221-2. 

Postal administration, 28-9. 

Pre-medical course of China 
Medical Board, 186. 

Presbyterian churches, of Man 
churia, missionary work, 103-4 ; 
in South Fukien, missionary 
work, 104-5. 

Presbyterian Mission, North, 
action regarding agricultural 
education, 161-2. 

Primers, preparation and sale of 
phonetic, 181. 














- 




396 



INDEX 



Silcock, H. T., 122-8. 

Silk, 20. 

Skins and hides, 21. 

Social application of Christianity, 
increased interest in, (59-70. 

Social aspects of idolatry, 8H-4. 

Social evil, 194. 

Social problems, books and 
articles on, 267-8. 

Social service work, examples, 
205-17 ; health promotion, 205- 
6 ; playground service, 2U6-7 ; 
industrial and commercial ex 
tension work, 207-8 ; popular 
lectures, 208-9 ; work among 
poor, 209-10 ; employment 
service, 210 ; service to boys, 
211-14 ; health and sanitation, 
214-17. 

Social life of China, traditional 
basis, 15. 

South China Alliance Press 
publications, 245. 

Southern Baptist Convention, 
Women s Missionary Society, 
106-7. 

Southern Methodist Mission, 
Women s Missionary Society 
of, 107. 

Sparham, C. G , 52-64. 

Spirit and character of approach 
to Chinese religions, 275-80. 

St. John s University, appropria 
tion of China Medical Board, 
187. 

Stauffer, Milton T., 312-330. 

Strikes, Student and business, 
48-9. 

Stuart, J. L., 65-73. 

Student conferences, 143-4. 

Student movement, -41-4; 45- 
51 ; causes and origin, 41, 4r.~Q 
the fourth of May, 46-7 ; 
cabinet meeting, 47 ; street 
lectures, 48 ; student strikes, 
48 ; arrest of students, 49 ; 
business strikes, 49 ; resulting 
organizations, 50-] , 55-57. 

Student and politics, 228-9. 



Student Volunteer Movement, 
157. 

Student work in Peking, united 
action, 308-11. 

Students, arrest of, 49. 

Students, evangelization of, 
140-6. 

Summer conferences on agricul 
tural missions, 163. 

Summer resorts, promotion of 
phonetic writing at, 181. 

Support of missionary move 
ments of the Chinese Church, 
99, 102. 

Survey, 63-4. 

Survey conference, 63-4. 

Survey, need of financial, E01-2. 

Survey, general missionary, prog 
ress, 312-30; nature, 312-13; 
objectives, 313; initial handi 
caps, 313-14 ; first period of 
work, 315-19 ; India survey, 
315-16 ; types of information 
called for, 3.6-17; survey of 
outlying territories, 317-18; 
response, 318-19 ; second period 
of woik, 319-22; difficulties 
encountered, 319-20 ; prelimi 
nary charts, Si 0-1; population 
estimates, 321 ; hospitals, 321-2; 
third period of work, 322 ; 
cooperation of educational ,and 
medical associations, 322-23 ; 
hospital efficiency survey, 323 ; 
Chinese report, 323-24 ; Inter- 
church World Movement, 324 ; 
China - for - Christ Movement, 
324 ; local surveys, 324-25 ; by 
products of the survey, 325-28; 
problems and questions on 
which the survey will throw 
light, 328-30. 

Taoism, 87 ; foreshado wings of 
Christ anity^n, 277-8. 

Teacher training, 152 ; in China, 
122-8; importance, 122; agen 
cies for, 1 23 ; government 
normal schools, 1 23-4 ; private 
















" > 






398 



INDEX 



promotion of phonetic script 
by, 179. 

Young Men s Christian Associa 
tion publications, 235-6 ; in 



Tientsin, 142 ; social service 
work, 205-17. 

Young Women s Christian As 
sociation publications, 241.